HONORING OUR HEROS
MEN AND WOMEN OF HONOR
BECAUSE OF THEM
WE HAVE OUR FREEDOM
They know more than anyone
THAT FREEDOM ISN'T FREE
WE HONOR THEM
so that the young
WILL KNOW WHO THEY ARE
AND WHY THEY FOUGHT.
Our Wonderful Veterans
This book is being created so that we can better remember and Honor our Veterans and their stories preserve their heritage and pass their legacy on to our children. In each of our local libraries I have placed a book with over 1000 names of our local veterans.
If you appreciate your freedom and way of life thank a veteran. Families living in our area had members like mine that had fought in the Revolutionary war, the American Civil War, World Wars I and II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm and Iraq. My dad was in the Normandy invasion and saw many die. I served in the Vietnam era.
Young people need to learn that Freedom Isn't Free, that Many died for their freedom and that we need to be prepared to defend our freedom soon. What a shame that a lot of young people don't know who we fought in WWII or why. As a local historian and college professor I see the need for a local history book honoring our veterans. Those wonderful veterans served the cause of freedom in times of need. They fought the armys of the dictators who sought to take over America. It is because of their fortitude and struggles that we are free today.
This is a book in progress. Your suggestions in what should be included or corrections are welcome.
Why we may have to defend our country again soon.
We hold the best real estate with the best land and best water in the world and we are outnumbered by over 6.3 billion people. We are now under silent attack by Islamic extremists and foreigners who are taking secret steps to take over our country. I did not make this up. If you ask knowledgeable intelligence people they will agree with this. Aliens and foreign born now make up over 20% of our country. Soon they will make up ¼ of the population. In some states they are nearly a third of the population. In some areas they are a majority. Many have no loyalty to America. One in five households now do not speak English at home. Nearly 60 million foreign born and aliens now reside in our country. These put a heavy burden on our medical system and welfare system costing US taxpayers billions. Some are moving to control our food supply, banks and gasoline supply. Some of these are operatives for foreign countries who would like to own or control American real estate and take over our country. Foreigners are now buying American real estate. Foreigners who own a large area of land can usually do what ever they want on that land.
Our military over relys on command and control satellites which the Chinese now have the capability to destroy because our government has allowed hard earned American technology to be given away. Foreign countries train their bright kids and now put out hundreds of engineers to each of our one. In fact they have more bright kids than we have kids. They will soon surpass us in war technology. Our government has allowed our banks and high technology companies to become controlled by foreigners. I think it is treason to knowingly let foreign countries control parts of America or give away American jobs. George Bush even tried to let the Arab emirate of Dubai take over control of our ports.
Other countries train their young people to defend their country while our young people play video games. Something is seriously wrong here.
Who will defend America? We have virtually no local army to defend us. 19% of Americans claim to be disabled. 25% are under 18. 13% are over 65, 8% are mentally ill or anti war and fighting. 10-12% are mothers taking care of young children. 20% are aliens. That adds up. Who is left to defend our country? Only about 7% of our population is between 15 and 19 and many of those are immature or unfit to defend our country. About half of our population is between 15 and 60 and if one subtracts 20% aliens, 12% mothers caring for young children, 5% mentally ill, 19% disabled and 3% who will not participate in a war that leaves less than about 7% of Americans to defend our wonderful country. Only a very few active military (1.3 million but most are stationed around the world) and us veterans. So if push comes to fight it is only our tiny handicapped military and a few million potential untrained persons who have no idea how to defend our country against against 6.3 billion foreigners who will soon have better war technology than us. We are vastly outnumbered. Something is seriously wrong. Why is the government allowing us to be unprepared? Now in some states they are trying to prevent local citizens from owning rifles. Who's side are they on? Americans have always been able to keep rifles in their homes. When we lose that right we will for sure not be able to defend our country at home because there are not enough police and army units in 99% of our communities to protect us.
Even if they did not have better technology and just invaded our neighborhoods with rifles with bayonets who is going to stop them? American neighborhoods are easy pickens for soldiers because they are inhabited by TV addicts for most part only armed with TV remotes and game controllers. The time is not right for this to happen yet but it could soon be. It is not a question of if but of when. Look at history. It is a fact that Billions of foreigners are soon to suffer starvation, water and land shortages. Billions of foreigners are not going to lay back and let their families starve and be without land and water when America has prime land, with resources, pure water and food and are armed for the most part with just TV remotes and are disorganized for defense. But regardless of whether you agree or not WE NEED TO BE PREPARED
We have to be prepared. Look at history. When countries need land and food they don't sit patiently by. They invade. Who is going to stop them. Their big secret is to deny any intention of coming here or taking control of our country. That is what Islamic militants, and other foreigners want us to think so we remain a nation of TV watching couch potatoes unprepared to defend our country. But they are coming here in record numbers estimated to be 4-5 million a year. Our 2000 mile long border is practically wide open. Foreign operatives can easily come in and are. The time is not quite right yet but when it is the invasion will come so quickly there will not be time to mobilize because most of the invaders will already be here.. Imagine a foreign ship docking at the port of Detroit on new years eve at a deserted unlighted dock. Unnoticed it suddenly unloads thousands of foreign military in American police uniforms with vehicles that look exactly like American hummers. Who is going to mobilize to stop them? First their operatives will disrupt phone service (easy to do) and create distractions such as power outages (easy to do), all without a shot fired. They would first ambush police officers and take their cars and next take over police stations. Not to difficult if most of the officers are out on runs. They would quickly assassinate public officials. And take over government offices. Their own operatives who lived here with us for years would man the phones and tell callers that it is just a training exercise.
Then poison our water supply (easy to do) killing and sickening thousands. Our phone, power, natural gas, water utilities and even gasoline are very easy to disrupt. With the phones and power out the media such as TV and Radio would be unable to spread the word about the attack. Foreign operatives already within our country could cause disruption of these leading to major food and water shortages. With these distractions most Americans will not realize that it is an attack and won't be thinking about defending our country.
Then come the foreign soldiers dressed as police or as civilians among us. Some are already here as part of the nearly 60 million foreigners. Remember 20 people out of every 100 are foreigners. Soon to be ¼ of our population. If some of those were armed, trained and dressed as you and I are who would suspect them? The element of surprise is the best military strategy. An average platoon of troops could easily take most urban neighborhoods one at a time. Most of our neighborhoods are virtually defenseless. Of course what are we going to fight with? Most of us veterans have no weapons or ammunition. Many of us feel this type of sneak attack could happen. In this way large areas of the US could be taken over. Local police are not equipped to fight troops or urban guerrillas. Most neighborhoods are literally helpless. Farmers in rural areas used to be armed but very few now could defend against troops. The truth is that most Americans are sitting ducks unprepared, untrained, and unable to defend our country from a surprise sneak attack by foreign operatives inside our country. Especially since our phone, power, natural gas, water utilities and even gasoline are very easy to disrupt. Military intelligence has had indications that there are foreign groups including countries that want to take over our country. Asian and Muslims have a different fighting strategy and mindset. They will not be taking prisoners. They will act quickly in surprise disruptions and attacks. Unless Americans get their heads out of their TV fantasy world and face reality we could be conquered. But regardless of whether you agree or not WE NEED TO BE PREPARED.
Over 8600 Americans have died in the just last few years due to terrorism and it appears that there is no end in sight. Perhaps the worst is probably yet to come as there are thousands of Muslim terrorists in training around the world and are planning to bring it here. Historical study shows that there have always been wars and there will be more wars. History shows us a valuable lesson that we should BE PREPARED.
History of Wars in our Area
For Thousands of years mankind has lived here. Although their main occupation was survival in the wilderness their secondary occupation seems to have been warfare against other tribes. They often did not speak each others language and so could not negotiate a truce or talk their way out of danger. Not understanding each other the spear or knife took command rather than words. There were thousands of killings and butcherings. They often ate the heart of their adversary. They showed no mercy. They killed and tortured and took slaves. There was no rule of law rather just the rule of brute force. There were times of peace but they could never be sure when or where another tribe would attack. Would you want to live during that time?
With the arrival of Europeans in the 1600s a lot of things changed but not the fact of wars. Soon the Indians had knives, tomahawks, swords and guns. Both the French and English bought scalps and gave the Indians scalping knives and firewater (whiskey) They told them that the other Europeans, Indians and settlers were against them and wanted their land. They gave the Indians license to kill and steal the settlers belongings including pots, guns, valuables, crops and livestock. There was an increase in tribal warfare and killing of settlers from 1600 to 1800 in Michigan. Michigan was a dangerous place for a settler until after 1818. Thousands of Settlers and Indians were killed. Both were nearly annihilated from SE Michigan.
The minutemen were ready in minutes to spread the word of attack and summon neighbors to fight in absence of an army.
US American Revolutionary War 1775-1783
221,000 mobilized, 36,000 died in action or from wounds, illnesses or accidents. over 12,000 wounded, 16,000 POWs. King George thought he owned us and wanted to make money off of us to pay for his extravagant living and for the cost of administration. The British also put excessive taxes on us and did not properly govern the colonies. They also tried to force intolerable acts upon us. We preferred to pass our own laws and run our own government. Then they sent in combat troops and fired on us. Then they sent in armys against us. We fought for our Freedom.
The book has many illustrations not presented here.
They killed each
other and they had no gripe against the other.
US Civil War 1861-1865
Total Mobilized 2,456,000. Dead 360,022 North, 258,000 South. Wounded 455,175. POWs 426,000 Folks could have settled the issues thru debate and mutual agreement. They let passions rule instead. The cost in suffering was beyond the imagination. Over a million casualties all over issues that could have been settled by discussion. The confederate states wanted to break up the union and have slavery. The North wanted to preserve the whole country as a nation and abolish slavery. There were many other factors including the economy, high taxation and The "oppressive" federal government. High taxes(tariffs before the war). A growing government unwilling to listen to law abiding citizens. (1816 Georgia complaint. From http://ngeorgia.com/history/why.html)
WE FOUGHT FOR THE FREEDOM OF ALL AND TO PRESERVE OUR UNIION
Heronoius Engleman for whom Engleman street was named was a civil war veteran.
Governor Austin Blair declared in January of 1861 South Carolina’s secession from the union. On the evening of April 12, 1861, the manager of the Detroit Theater rushed on stage and announced that Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, had been bombarded by Southern forces. A momentary silence hung over the theater, then the orchestra struck up “Yankee Doodle” and the audience rose as one and gave cheers for the Union.”*
When President Abraham Lincoln called for 1000 troops Michigan responded with 750,000. The first troops to leave the state were the First Michigan Infantry, which arrived in Washington, DC, on May 16, 1861. According to tradition, President Lincoln greeted the regiment, the first to arrive from a western state, with “Thank God for Michigan.” Eventually, ninety thousand Michigan men—and a few women—saw service in the Union army during the war. Michigan’s total included about 1,500 African Americans who served with the First Michigan Colored Infantry, later the 102nd U.S.
From the war’s first big battle, where Michiganians covered the retreat of a defeated Union army, to the capture of Confederate president Jefferson Davis four years later, Michigan's boys in blue saw action in all the war’s major battles. Seventy Michiganians were awarded the Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest honor for meritorious service. By 1865 the Civil War was over but not without sorrow for those who died for their beliefs. The Battle of Gettysburg, for example resulted over 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, captured or missing. Many laid there for days dying with no pain killers and no help. Several Center Line and Warren residents served the cause of freedom.
The state’s best known generals included Orlando B. Willcox, who led the First Michigan to war and earned a Medal of Honor at First Bull Run; Israel B. Richardson, who commanded a division at Antietam where he was mortally wounded; Alpheus S. Williams, who commanded a corps at several major battles, including Gettysburg; and, George A. Custer, who commanded the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, one of the fightingest units in the war. A year after the war, in a ceremony where the colors of the Michigan regiments were formally presented to the governor, General Willcox concluded, “”We have tried to do our duty, and we have done no more than that duty which every citizen owes to a free and fraternal government.” Willcox symbolically surrendered the flags and added, “We shall ever retain our pride in their glorious associations, as well as our love for the old peninsula state.” Today these flags are housed in the Michigan Historical Museum.*
History of the 4th Michigan Infantry Regiment
"Grand Army of the Potomac" 1861-1864
The 4th Michigan Infantry was one of the must feared and respected Union regiments who fought in the Civil War. They served in the Grand Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1864. The 4th Mustered into service on June 20, 1861 at Adrian, Michigan. They mustered out of service on June 29, 1864 at Detroit, Michigan.
There were 1025 officers and men in the regiment at the time it was mustered into service. These men were enlisted into service for a period of three years. The 4th Michigan was sent to Washington D.C. to join "The Grand Army of the Potomac" under the command of General "Little Mac" McClellan. The 4th Michigan was assigned to Porter's Corps, Morrell's Division , Griffin's Brigade.
Slavery was practiced in times past mostly by the Indians between tribes. Occasionally American settlers if they were lucky were made slaves as opposed to being scalped. 10,000 Americans were made slaves of the British which was one of the major causes of the war of 1812-1815. Sadly slavery is a repeating fact of history, occurring in most times and as much as we all abhor it, and it doesn’t appear to be going totally away. Some say that the next war will be here and that those who are not killed will become slaves.
Spanish American War 1898
Casualties 69,292 58,949 from disease, 1,282 from combat. POWs 30,000
The United States was trying to aid the people of Cuba to be free of Spanish rule. The USS Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor after after a serious explosion, resulting in the deaths of 266 men. Propaganda fired up the Americans to a point that they wanted a war. Newspaper owners such as William R. Hearst put out propaganda rather than truth and even went against his own reporter Frederic Remington who stated that conditions in Cuba were not bad enough to warrant hostilities. Hearst allegedly replied, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."[W. Joseph Campbell (summer 2000). "Not likely sent: The Remington-Hearst "telegrams"". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly.]
Lashed to fury by the yellow journalism, the American cry of the hour became, Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain! President William McKinley, Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed and the business community opposed the growing public demand for war. But were eventually forced into it by resolutions of Congress for a war to aid Cuban independence and to end the Cuban civil war. (Paraphrased from Wikipedia and other sources)
As part of that war hostilities started in the Philippines on May 1, 1898 and ended on August 12 1898. Americans saw action in the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam.
We fought to liberate Cuba and to give the Cuban people freedom.
Philippine Insurrection 1898-1902
220,000 Mobilized, 24,064 Killed. 200,000 died of Disease/Hunger
At the end of the Spanish War Spain ceded the Philippines to the US for a sum of money.
This war happened because of lack of proper communication. There was language non understanding. We were on the side of the Philippine people but they did not know it. However about this time the Philippine independence movement had just won independence from the Spanish. Due to poor communication and misunderstanding the new Independent Philippine president and government was not recognized by the Americans so they declared war on the US starting in 1899 and lasting until 1902. but a gorilla war continued for another ten years.
We fought to give the Philippine people freedom.
World War I " The War to End All Wars" 1914-1918
Over 65 million people mobilized, 8 million people killed, 40 Million casualties
21 million wounded, 7,750,919 POWs. (From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages) An Austro-Hungarian got shot by a a man in a terrorist group. Even though it was unproven that he was associated with any government Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia. This war is “the classic case of one thing lead to another.” This whole matter could have been handled in a court or by discussion but countries had made alliances with other countries. Serbia had an alliance with Russia. When Russia mobilized Germany who had an alliance with Hungary mobilized.
France had an alliance with Russia so it mobilized. Britain was allied to France so it mobilized.
“United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and France) - forced the U.S. to finally enter the war on 6 April 1917.” (Wikipedia article on WWI) “ Japan, honoring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.” (Wikipedia article on WWI) The unnecessary war rapidly escalated from almost nothing into a true world war.
A German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, and after submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of a telegram showing that Germany was trying to get Mexico to attack the US, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[(Wikipedia article on WWI) ]
“Crucial to U.S. participation was the massive domestic propaganda campaign executed by the Committee on Public Information overseen by George Creel. The campaign included tens of thousands of government-selected community leaders giving brief carefully scripted pro-war speeches at thousands of public gatherings. Along with other branches of government and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League, it also included the general repression and harassment of people either opposed to American entry into the war or of German heritage. Other forms of propaganda included newsreels, photos, large-print posters (designed by several well-known illustrators of the day, including Louis D. Fancher), magazine and newspaper articles, etc.”
(Wikipedia article on WWI)
In World War I much of the fighting was done from trenches. Both sides would take turns shelling each other they get out of the trenches and charge ahead killing each other in great numbers. For example: “On 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme, the British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.”(Wikipedia article on WWI) Accounts from men who fought stated the trenches were sometimes filled with mud or frost. No place to lay down and sleep. All were in constant state of terror. Parts of their bodies blown off with no decent medical treatment. All this over one guy being shot by a terrorist. You had no quarrel with the men in the trenches on the other side. Yet we had to do our best to blow each other apart and we both succeeded. Many died after hours of tremendous pain. All of this could have been avoided by discussions.
By the summer of 1918 the U S was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day.
There was a big naval war going on with hundreds of ships being sunk on both sides.
“The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September 1918 . 260,000 U.S. soldiers went "over the top". All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon. (Wikipedia article on WWI)
By October 1918 “Having suffered over 6 million casualties, Germany moved toward peace.” (Wikipedia article on WWI)
“At 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918 — the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month — a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian George Lawrence Price is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper and died at 10:58.” (Wikipedia article on WWI)
Over 65 million people were mobilized, 8 million people killed, 40 Million casualties
See the list of our veterans who died earlier in this book.
We fought because our ships were being sunk and to restore freedom in Europe.
World War II "A war to end all wars" 1937-1946
Mobilized 178,048,566. Killed 404,997 USA, Deaths over 16,000,000 combat,
Civilian deaths 6,300,000. POW deaths 1,500,000.
From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages
The World Almanac states that the Total deaths related to the war was over 45 MILLION and that the government of Germany KILLED 5-6 million of its own people. German bombs killed 70,000 British Civilians. 100,000 Chinese civilians were killed by the Japanese just to capture the city of Nanking.
We fought because we were attacked and because both the japs and Germany wanted to take over America. We also fought to restore freedom and justice for all to Europe.
Here is the timetable.1938 Oct 15 - German troops occupy the Sudetenland; Czech government resigns.
1939 March 15/16 - Nazis take Czechoslovakia
Sept 1, 1939 - Nazis invade Poland.
Sept 29, 1939 - Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland.
Nov 30, 1939 - Soviets attack Finland.
March 16, 1940 - Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland.
April 9, 1940 - Nazis invade Denmark and Norway.
May 10, 1940 - Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.
May 15, 1940 - Holland surrenders to the Nazis.
May 26, 1940 - Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.
May 28, 1940 - Belgium surrenders to the Nazis.
June 3, 1940 - Germans bomb Paris; Dunkirk evacuation ends.
June 10, 1940 - Norway surrenders to the Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France.
June 14, 1940 - Germans enter Paris.
July 1, 1940 - German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic.
July 10, 1940 - Battle of Britain begins.
July 23, 1940 - Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
Aug 3-19 - Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa.
Aug 13, 1940 - German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.
Sept 15, 1940 - Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool
Oct 28, 1940 - Italy invades Greece.
Nov 14/15 - Germans bomb Coventry, England.
Nov 20, 1940 - Hungary joins the Axis Powers.
Dec 29/30 - Massive German air raid on London.
Feb 14, 1941 - First units of German 'Afrika Korps' arrive in North Africa.
April 6, 1941 - Nazis invade Greece and Yugoslavia.
April 14, 1941 - Rommel attacks Tobruk.
April 17, 1941 - Yugoslavia surrenders to the Nazis.
April 27, 1941 - Greece surrenders to the Nazis.
May 24, 1941 - Sinking of the British ship Hood by the Bismarck.
May 27, 1941 - Sinking of the Bismarck by the British Navy.
Aug 20, 1941 - Nazi siege of Leningrad begins.
Sept 1, 1941 - Nazis order Jews to wear yellow stars.
Sept 3, 1941 - First experimental use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.
Sept 19, 1941 - Nazis take Kiev.
Sept 29, 1941 - Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev.
Oct 2, 1941 - Operation Typhoon begins (German advance on Moscow).
Oct 16, 1941 - Germans take Odessa.
Oct 24, 1941 - Germans take Kharkov.
Nov 13, 1941 - British aircraft carrier Ark Royal is sunk off Gibraltar by a U-boat.
Japan attacked the United States at Hawaii.
Dec 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; Hitler issues the Night and Fog decree.
Dec 8, 1941 - United States and Britain declare war on Japan.
Dec 11, 1941 - Germany declares war on the United States.
Above time line from http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/ww2time.htm
Japan attacked other countries and took over Indochina.
Time line below from Wikipedia and www.historyplace.com
Jump to the War in the Pacific
December 7, 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
1941-12-08 Japanese Invasion of Thailand
1941-12-08 Battle of Guam (1941)
1941-12-08 United States declares war on Japan
1941-12-08 – 1941-12-25 Battle of Hong Kong
1941-12-08 – 1942-01-31 Battle of Malaya
1941-12-10 Sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse
1941-12-11 – 1941-12-24 Battle of Wake Island
1941-12-16 – 1942-04-01 Borneo campaign (1942)
1941-12-22 – 1942-05-06 Battle of the Philippines
Jan 13, 1942 - Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA.
1942-01-01 – 1945-10-25 Transport of POWs via hell ships
1942-01-11 – 1942-01-12 Battle of Tarakan
1942-01-23 Battle of Rabaul (1942)
1942-01-24 Naval Battle of Balikpapan
1942-01-25 Thailand declares war on the Allies
1942-01-30 – 1942-02-03 Battle of Ambon
1942-01-30 – 1942-02-15 Battle of Singapore
1942-02-04 Battle of Makassar Strait
1942-02-14 – 1942-02-15 Battle of Palembang
1942-02-19 Air raids on Darwin, Australia
1942-02-19 – 1942-02-20 Battle of Badung Strait
1942-02-19 – 1943-02-10 Battle of Timor (1942-43)
1942-02-27 – 1942-03-01 Battle of the Java Sea
1942-03-01 Battle of Sunda Strait
1942-03-01 – 1942-03-09 Battle of Java
1942-03-31 Battle of Christmas Island
1942-03-31 – 1942-04-10 Indian Ocean raid
1942-04-09 Bataan Death March
1942-04-18 Doolittle Raid
1942-05-03 Japanese invasion of Tulagi
1942-05-04 – 1942-05-08 Battle of the Coral Sea
1942-05-31 – 1942-06-08 Attacks on Sydney Harbor area, Australia
In June 1942 - Mass murder of Jews by gassing begins at Auschwitz.
1942-06-04 – 1942-06-06 Battle of Midway
July 1-30 1942 - First Battle of El Alamein.
Aug 17, 1942 - First all-American air attack in Europe.
Sept 2, 1942 - Rommel driven back by Montgomery in the Battle of Alam Halfa.
Oct 5, 1942 - A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.
Oct 18, 1942 - Hitler orders the execution of all captured British commandos.
Nov 1, 1942 - Operation Supercharge (Allies break Axis lines at El Alamein).
Nov 8, 1942 - Operation Torch begins (U.S. invasion of North Africa).
Nov 11, 1942 - Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy France.
South East Asian campaigns: 1941-12-08 – 1945-08-15
Burma Campaign: 1941-12-16 – 1945-08-15
1945-05-15 – 1945-05-16 Battle of the Malacca Strait
New Guinea campaign
1942-01-23 – Battle of Rabaul
1942-03-07 – Operation Mo (Japanese invasion of mainland New Guinea)
1942-05-04 – 1942-05-08 Battle of the Coral Sea
1942-07-01 – 1943-01-31 Kokoda Track Campaign
1942-08-25 – 1942-09-05 Battle of Milne Bay
1942-11-19 – 1942-01-23 Battle of Buna-Gona
Jan 23, 1943 - Montgomery's Eighth Army takes Tripoli.
Jan 27, 1943 - First bombing raid by Americans on Germany (at Wilhelmshaven).
Feb 2, 1943 - Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies.
Feb 8, 1943 - Soviet troops take Kursk.
Feb 14-25 - Battle of Kasserine Pass between the U.S. 1st Armored Division and German Panzers in North Africa.
Feb 16, 1943 - Soviets re-take Kharkov.
March 2, 1943 - Germans begin a withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.
March 16-20 - Battle of Atlantic climaxes with 27 merchant ships sunk by German U-boats.
March 20-28 - Montgomery's Eighth Army breaks through the Mareth Line in Tunisia.
April 6/7 - Axis forces in Tunisia begin a withdrawal as American and British forces link.
April 19, 1943 - Waffen SS attacks Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto.
May 7, 1943 - Allies take Tunisia.
May 13, 1943 - German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa.
May 16/17 - British air raid on the Ruhr.
May 22, 1943 - Dönitz suspends U-boat operations in the North Atlantic.
June 10, 1943 - 'Pointblank' directive to improve Allied bombing strategy issued.
June 11, 1943 - Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in Poland.
July 5, 1943 - Germans begin their last offensive against Kursk.
July 9/10 - Allies land in Sicily.
July 19, 1943 - Allies bomb Rome.
July 22, 1943 - Americans capture Palermo, Sicily.
July 24, 1943 - British bombing raid on Hamburg.
July 25/26 - Mussolini arrested and the Italian Fascist government falls; Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies.
July 27/28 - Allied air raid causes a firestorm in Hamburg.
Aug 12-17 - Germans evacuate Sicily.
Aug 17, 1943 - American daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany; Allies reach Messina, Sicily.
Aug 23, 1943 - Soviet troops recapture Kharkov.
Sept 8, 1943 - Italian surrender is announced.
Sept 9, 1943 - Allied landings at Salerno and Taranto.
Sept 11, 1943 - Germans occupy Rome.
Sept 12, 1943 - Germans rescue Mussolini.
Sept 23, 1943 - Mussolini re-establishes a Fascist government.
Oct 1, 1943 - Allies enter Naples, Italy.
Oct 13, 1943 - Italy declares war on Germany; Second American air raid on Schweinfurt.
Nov 6, 1943 - Russians recapture Kiev in the Ukraine.
Nov 18, 1943 - Large British air raid on Berlin.
Nov 28, 1943 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran.
Dec 24-26 - Soviets launch offensives on the Ukrainian front.
Jan 6, 1944 - Soviet troops advance into Poland.
Jan 17, 1944 - First attack toward Cassino, Italy.
Jan 22, 1944 - Allies land at Anzio.
Jan 27, 1944 - Leningrad relieved after a 900-day siege.
Feb 15-18 - Allies bomb the monastery at Monte Cassino.
Feb 16, 1944 - Germans counter-attack against the Anzio beachhead.
March 4, 1944 - Soviet troops begin an offensive on the Belorussian front; First major daylight bombing raid on Berlin by the Allies.
March 15, 1944 - Second Allied attempt to capture Monte Cassino begins.
March 18, 1944 - British drop 3000 tons of bombs during an air raid on Hamburg
April 8, 1944 - Soviet troops begin an offensive to liberate Crimea.
May 9, 1944 - Soviet troops recapture Sevastopol.
May 11, 1944 - Allies attack the Gustav Line south of Rome.
May 12, 1944 - Germans surrender in the Crimea.
May 15, 1944 - Germans withdraw to the Adolf Hitler Line.
May 25, 1944 - Germans retreat from Anzio.
June 5, 1944 - Allies enter Rome.
June 6, 1944 - D-Day landings.
June 9, 1944 - Soviet offensive against the Finnish front begins.
June 10, 1944 - Nazis liquidate the town of Oradour-sur-Glane in France.
June 13, 1944 - First German V-1 rocket attack on Britain.
June 22, 1944 - Operation Bagration begins (the Soviet summer offensive).
June 27, 1944 - U.S. troops liberate Cherbourg.
July 3, 1944 - 'Battle of the Hedgerows' in Normandy; Soviets capture Minsk.
July 9, 1944 - British and Canadian troops capture Caen.
July 18, 1944 - U.S. troops reach St. Lô.
July 20, 1944 - German assassination attempt on Hitler fails.
July 24, 1944 - Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek.
July 25-30 - Operation Cobra (U.S. troops break out west of St. Lô).
July 28, 1944 - Soviet troops take Brest-Litovsk. U.S. troops take Coutances.
Aug 1, 1944 - Polish Home Army uprising against Nazis in Warsaw begins; U.S. troops reach Avranches.
Aug 4, 1944 - Anne Frank and family arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam, Holland.
Aug 7, 1944 - Germans begin a major counter-attack toward Avranches.
Aug 15, 1944 - Operation Dragoon begins (the Allied invasion of Southern France).
Aug 19, 1944 - Resistance uprising in Paris.
Aug 19/20 - Soviet offensive in the Balkans begins with an attack on Romania.
Aug 20, 1944 - Allies encircle Germans in the Falaise Pocket.
Aug 25, 1944 - Liberation of Paris.
Aug 31, 1944 - Soviet troops take Bucharest.
Sept 1-4 - Verdun, Dieppe, Artois, Rouen, Abbeville, Antwerp and Brussels liberated by Allies.
Sept 4, 1944 - Finland and the Soviet Union agree to a cease-fire.
Sept 13, 1944 - U.S. troops reach the Siegfried Line.
Sept 17, 1944 - Operation Market Garden begins (Allied airborne assault on Holland).
Sept 26, 1944 - Soviet troops occupy Estonia.
Oct 2, 1944 - Warsaw Uprising ends as the Polish Home Army surrenders to the Germans.
Oct 10-29 - Soviet troops capture Riga.
Oct 14, 1944 - Allies liberate Athens; Rommel commits suicide.
Oct 21, 1944 - Massive German surrender at Aachen.
Oct 30, 1944 - Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.
Nov 20, 1944 - French troops drive through the 'Beffort Gap' to reach the Rhine.
Nov 24, 1944 - French capture Strasbourg.
Dec 4, 1944 - Civil War in Greece; Athens placed under martial law.
Dec 16-27 - Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes.
Dec 17, 1944 - Waffen SS murder 81 U.S. POWs at Malmedy.
Dec 26, 1944 - Patton relieves Bastogne.
Dec 27, 1944 - Soviet troops besiege Budapest.
1945 Jan 1-17 - Germans withdraw from the Ardennes.
Jan 16, 1945 - U.S. 1st and 3rd Armies link up after a month long separation during the Battle of the Bulge.
Jan 17, 1945 - Soviet troops capture Warsaw. Auschwitz foto from www.dmko.info/
Jan 26, 1945 - Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz.
Feb 4-11 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Yalta.
Feb 13/14 - Dresden is destroyed by a firestorm after Allied bombing raids.
March 6, 1945 - Last German offensive of the war begins to defend oil fields in Hungary.
March 7, 1945 - Allies take Cologne and establish a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen.
March 30, 1945 - Soviet troops capture Danzig.
In April - Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in salt mines.
April 1, 1945 - U.S. troops encircle Germans in the Ruhr; Allied offensive in North Italy.
April 12, 1945 - Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps;
President Roosevelt dies. Truman becomes President.
April 16, 1945 - Soviet troops begin their final attack on Berlin; Americans enter Nuremberg.
April 18, 1945 - German forces in the Ruhr surrender.
April 21, 1945 - Soviets reach Berlin.
April 28, 1945 - Mussolini is captured and hanged by Italian partisans; Allies take Venice.
April 29, 1945 - U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.
April 30, 1945 - Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
May 2, 1945 - German troops in Italy surrender.
May 7, 1945 - Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies.
May 8, 1945 - V-E (Victory in Europe) Day.
May 9, 1945 - Hermann Göring is captured by members of the U.S. 7th Army.
May 23, 1945 - SS Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide; German High Command and Provisional Government imprisoned.
June 5, 1945 - Allies divide up Germany and Berlin and take over the government.
June 26, 1945 - United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.
July 1, 1945 - U.S., British, and French troops move into Berlin.
Back to the pacific War
1943-01-28 – 1943-01-30 Battle of Wau
1943-03-02 – 1943-03-04 Battle of the Bismarck Sea
1943-06-29 – 1943-09-16 Battle of Lae
1943-06-30 – 1944-03-25 Operation Cartwheel
1943-09-19 – 1944-04-24 Finisterre Range campaign
1943-09-22 – 1944-01-15 Huon Peninsula campaign
1943-11-01 – 1943-11-11 Attack on Rabaul
1943-12-15 – 1945-08-15 New Britain campaign
1944-02-29 – 1944-03-25 Admiralty Islands campaign
1944-04-22 – 1945-08-15 Western New Guinea campaign
Aleutian Islands campaign
1942-06-06 – 1943-08-15 Battle of the Aleutian Islands
1942-06-07 – 1943-08-15 Battle of Kiska
1943-03-26 – Battle of the Komandorski Islands
1942-08-07 – 1943-02-09 Battle of Guadalcanal
1942-08-09 Battle of Savo Island
1942-08-24 – 1942-08-25 Battle of the Eastern Solomons Airplane foto from 8thattacksqdnassoc.tripod.com/WWII.html
1942-10-11 – 1942-10-12 Battle of Cape Esperance
1942-10-25 – 1942-10-27 Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands
1942-11-13 – 1942-11-15 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
1942-11-30 Battle of Tassafaronga
Solomon Islands campaign
1943-01-29 – 1943-01-30 Battle of Rennell Island
1943-03-06 Battle of Blackett Strait
1943-06-10 – 1943-08-25 Battle of New Georgia
1943-07-06 Battle of Kula Gulf
1943-07-12 – 1943-07-13 Battle of Kolombangara
1943-08-06 – 1943-08-07 Battle of Vella Gulf
1943-08-17 – 1943-08-18 Battle off Horaniu
1943-08-15 – 1943-10-09 Land Battle of Vella Lavella
1943-10-06 Naval Battle of Vella Lavella
1943-11-01 – 1945-08-21 Battle of Bougainville
1943-11-01 – 1943-11-02 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay
1943-11-26 Battle of Cape St. George
Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign
1943-11-20 – 1943-11-23 Battle of Tarawa
1943-11-20 – 1943-11-24 Battle of Makin
1944-01-31 – 1944-02-07 Battle of Kwajalein
1944-02-16 – 1944-02-17 Attack on Truk
1944-02-16 – 1944-02-23 Battle of Eniwetok
ship foto from www.britannica.com
Bombing of South East Asia, 1944-45
Operation Cockpit 1944-04-19
Operation Transom 1944-05-17
Operation Matterhorn 1944-06-05 – May 1945
Operation Meridian 1945-01-24 – 1945-01-29
Mariana and Palau Islands campaign
1944-06-15 – 1944-07-09 Battle of Saipan
1944-06-19 – 1944-06-20 Battle of the Philippine Sea
1944-07-21 – 1944-08-10 Battle of Guam
1944-07-24 – 1944-08-01 Battle of Tinian
1944-09-15 – 1944-11-25 Battle of Peleliu
1944-09-17 – 1944-09-30 Battle of Angaur
1944-10-20 – 1944-12-10 Battle of Leyte
1944-10-24 – 1944-10-25 Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944-11-11 – 1944-12-21 Battle of Ormoc Bay
1944-12-15 – 1945-07-04 Battle of Luzon
1945-01-09 Invasion of Lingayen Gulf
1945-02-27 – 1945-07-04 Southern Philippines campaign
Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign
1945-02-16 – 1945-03-26 Battle of Iwo Jima
1945-04-01 – 1945-06-21 Battle of Okinawa
1945-04-07 Operation Ten-Go
1945-05-01 – 1945-05-25 Battle of Tarakan
1945-06-10 – 1945-06-15 Battle of Brunei
1945-06-10 – 1945-06-22 Battle of Labuan
1945-06-17 – 1945-08-15 Battle of North Borneo
1945-07-07 – 1945-07-21 Battle of Balikpapan
1945-07-22 Battle of Tokyo Bay
1945-08-06 – 1945-08-09 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
After lousing thousands of our soldiers and facing losing thousands more the United states leaders decided to bring the war to a halt by bombing just two Japanese cities with just two bombs. (World Almanac) That worked and stopped the Japanese invaders. Imperial Japan surrendered on August 15, and this day became known in the English-speaking countries as "V-J Day" (Victory in Japan). From Wikipedia
MURDER OF AN AUSTRALIAN HERO
The Japanese were especially brutal in their treatment of captured Allied airmen and members of special forces, such as commandos. A Japanese soldier, Yasuno Chikao, prepares to behead Australian Sergeant Leonard G. Siffleet at Aitape in New Guinea in 1943. The Australian commando from "M" Special Unit was captured while his small patrol was operating deep behind enemy lines. This atrocity cannot be justified on the ground that Sergeant Siffleet and his team were spies. All were in uniform when captured. In the case of other Allied prisoners of war, the Japanese killed many of them by starvation, bashings, and forced labour. Yasuno Chikao escaped the hangman by failing to survive the war.
The Japanese government refuses to allow Japanese schoolchildren to be told the truth about Japan's military aggression and the terrible atrocities committed by the Japanese military between 1937 and 1945.
They have never apologized.
The statements quoted below are representative of the continuing denial of war guilt and atrocities at the highest levels of Japanese politics, academia, and cultural expression.
Denial of Japan's war guilt
"The Pacific War was a war of liberation..."
Nagano Shigeto, Japan's Justice Minister (1994).
"The Pacific War was a war to liberate colonized Asia."
A resolution moved in the Japanese Parliament (the Diet) in 1995 by 221 members of Japan's long-dominant Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).
"Japan was forced to go to war by American oil and other embargoes."
Hosei Norota, senior member of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party (2001).
"Japan was forced into WW II to liberate Asia from the yoke of Western colonialism."
Hideaki Kase, producer of the controversial Japanese film "Merdeka" (2001).
Denial of atrocities
"The Nanjing Massacre is a lie made up by the Chinese."
Ishihara Shintaro, former Japanese Cabinet Minister, interviewed October 1990.
..the Nanjing Massacre is a fabrication.
Nagano Shigeto, Japan's Justice Minister (1994).
"The Americans brainwashed the postwar Japanese into believing they had committed terrible war crimes."
Professor Nobukatsu Fujioka, Professor of Education, Tokyo University (1997).
"We have to pass on true history to young people. We must fight this information war against the rest of the world."
Eiichiro Washio, member of a group of Japanese politicians who deny the Nanjing Massacre occurred in 1937.
"Foreign 'Comfort Women' conscripted for Japanese Army brothels were 'prostitutes'."
Kajiyama Seiroku, Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary (1997).
JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER SHINZO ABE - A STENCH IN THE NOSTRILS OF DECENT HUMANITY?
The ultra-nationalist Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has shocked decent human beings by denying that hundreds of thousands of women were forced into sexual slavery in conquered countries by the Imperial Japanese Army between 1937 and 1945. Despite an apology to the so-called "comfort women" by Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono in 1993, testimony from the female victims and the Japanese soldiers who raped them, and support from historians who claim that as many as 200,000 captive women were forced into Japanese Army brothels in conquered countries, this prime minister has chosen to degrade himself and Japan in the eyes of civilized people by promoting a blatant lie that causes even more anguish to the female victims of Japanese brutality. Reported Tokyo, 1 March 2007. Predictably, the willingness of this neanderthal Japanese prime minister to sanitise Imperial Japan's hideous war crimes has encouraged other Japanese politicians to deny the Nanjing Massacre (Rape of Nanking) in 1937. Reported in "The Australian" 2 March 2007. See quote attributed to Eiichiro Washio above.
Reviving the ideology of Japanese militarism
"Japan is a divine nation centered on the emperor."
Yoshiro Mori, Prime Minister of Japan (2000).
And the final word
"I do not think things are going well in terms of Japan accepting responsibility for the past."
Professor Saburo Ienaga, distinguished Japanese historian (1998).
I believe that a resurgence of extreme nationalism in Japan since the early 1990s should be ringing alarm bells and require Japan's neighbors to take very seriously the continuing denial of Japan's war guilt and the appalling atrocities committed by the Japanese military between 1937 and 1945.
"Those who do not remember the past are condemned to relive it".
George Santayana, Spanish-American philosopher 1863-1952
JAPANESE WAR CRIMES 1937-1945
Between 1937 and 1943, Japanese military aggression spread across East Asia and the Pacific region like a hideous stain. Slaughter, looting, rape, and other forms of appalling brutality, accompanied the conquerors as each country fell victim to the Japanese war machine.
Singapore has fallen, and Britain has been humiliated. Victorious Japanese troops scream "Banzai!" These twentieth century barbarians slaughtered, raped, and looted their way across East Asia and the western half of the Pacific Ocean between 1937 and 1945. Including victims killed in China, historians estimate that the Japanese brutally murdered at least five million captive civilians and prisoners of war.
Historians outside Japan estimate that at least five million captive foreign civilians and prisoners of war were brutally murdered by the Japanese military between 1937 and 1945. To that figure, can be added hundreds of thousands of victims who were slowly murdered by starvation, disease, and beatings in Japanese prisoner of war and internment camps, and hundreds of thousands of women who were brutally raped by Japanese soldiers. The appalling rape figure includes two hundred thousand women in Japanese-occupied countries who were forced into sexual slavery in Japanese Imperial Army brothels. Finally, we cannot forget the terrible fate of hundreds of prisoners of war who were murdered by the Japanese Army's infamous Unit 731 in the course of horrible biological experiments.
The use of the word "murder" instead of "execution"
I have used the word "murder" in the context of Japanese war crimes when a barbaric act would constitute murder under the civil laws of Western countries and is contrary to the generally accepted laws and usages of war. I find the use of the word "execution" in connection with the victims of Japanese war crimes to be misleading, because the word "execution" can convey a false impression that a victim of Japanese brutality has undergone a semblance of a fair trial that resulted in a lawful order of execution.
Japanese military atrocities appall and puzzle Western societies
The Japanese conducted their military aggression in East Asia and the Pacific region with a savagery that most Westerners find difficult to comprehend. Even the Nazi Waffen SS troops at their worst would have had difficulty matching the brutality, racism, and fanaticism routinely displayed by the Japanese military; their cruelty towards, and frequent mass slaughter of prisoners of war and captive civilians; their wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages; their raping and looting; and their willingness to fight to the last man and never surrender.
Evidence of that brutality, racism, and fanaticism can be seen in the mass slaughter of hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and prisoners of war after the fall of the Chinese capital Nanking (now called Nanjing) in 1937; in the thousands of Allied prisoners of war murdered during the infamous Bataan Death March and Sandakan Death March; in the murders of American Navy airmen captured by the Japanese at the Battle of Midway; in the mass slaughter of Australian prisoners of war after their surrender on the islands of New Britain, Ambon and Timor; in the forced conscription of 200,000 foreign women, mostly Chinese and Korean, to be sex slaves in Japanese Army brothels; in the slaughter from March 1943 of all merchant seaman survivors after their ships had been sunk; and in the order by the Japanese Army to the civilian population of the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands to kill themselves and their children rather than endure the shame of being captured. Unable to reach the Japanese villagers in time to stop this atrocity, American marines could only watch as hundreds of Japanese mothers threw their children off a cliff onto the coral below and then followed them. These child murders and civilian suicides were praised and encouraged back in Japan.
Some Japanese were taken prisoner but no Australian survived as a prisoner of war during the bloody fighting in 1942 on the Kokoda Track. In addition to murdering all Australians captured by them on the Kokoda Track, the Japanese compounded this horror by killing and eating wounded Australian soldiers.
The brutal treatment of women, children, and other non-combatants by the Japanese military during the Pacific War 1941-45 is especially puzzling, because although Japanese troops were taught that surrender was contemptible and that all foreigners were inferior to them, it was the Chinese who had been singled out for labeling by the Japanese military as sub-human and equivalent to vermin. The Japanese slaughtered British hospital medical staff when Hong Kong fell in December 1942. They slaughtered a group of twenty-one Australian Army nurses who had reached Bangka Island after their ship was bombed and sunk after leaving Singapore. Only one woman survived this massacre to testify at a war crimes trial. The Japanese bombed clearly marked hospital buildings on Bataan in the Philippines. They bombed and torpedoed clearly marked hospital ships in Australian waters in 1942 and 1943. Japanese troops hunted down and murdered two Australian female missionaries who fled inland when the Japanese landed at Buna on the northern coast of the Australian Territory of Papua in 1942. On the Alaskan Island of Attu, Japanese troops overran an American base camp in 1943 and slaughtered all of the patients and medical staff at the field hospital.
The brief references above comprise only a tiny cross-section drawn from many thousands of documented Japanese atrocities committed during the Pacific War 1941-45 and Japan's brutal undeclared war against China that began in 1937. These war crimes were committed in every place reached by Japan's conquering armies and the number of those slaughtered, raped, and brutally treated in other ways can be numbered in millions. The range of Japanese war crimes is so vast that it is not possible on this web-site to cover it extensively, and the material that follows and the historical reference material included at the end of this treatment of Japanese war crimes are primarily intended for those who want to learn more about this dark page in human history.
For those who are tempted to deny the full horror and extent of Japanese war crimes between 1937 and 1945, Lord Russell's book "The Knights of Bushido" is recommended preliminary reading. Lord Russell of Liverpool served in both World Wars and, at the conclusion of the war in Europe, he served as Deputy Judge Advocate General for the British Army of the Rhine. He gave legal advice on the prosecution of war criminals in the British Zone of occupied Germany.
"The Knights of Bushido - A Short History of Japanese War Crimes" by Lord Russell of Liverpool (1958).
This classic work was written by a British Deputy Judge Advocate who was actually involved in German war crimes trials at the end of WW II. This work is essential reading on the topic of Japanese war atrocities, and is highly recommended.
"Prisoners of the Japanese" by Gavan Daws (1994), published by William Morrow; reprinted 2004 by Scribe Publication, Melbourne.
This is a powerful book that covers in searing detail the horrors inflicted on Allied POWs throughout East Asia and the Pacific. It is highly recommended.
"Horror in the East" by Laurence Rees (2001).
This title was produced as a book and an acclaimed BBC historical series. The forcing of young female captives to submit to sexual slavery in Japanese Army brothels is covered in this carefuly documented account of Japanese brutality towards captives and prisoners of war.
"The Rape of Nanking" by Iris Chang (1997).
This book must cause the reader to wonder how an ancient culture such as Japan's could produce soldiers who could sink to the depths of depravity described by Iris Chang.
"Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan" by Professor Herbert P. Bix (2000).
This extraordinary history of Hirohito won a Pulitzer prize. It is essential reading for anyone who ever believed that Hirohito was a war criminal who escaped justice.
The Rape of Nanking or Nanjing Massacre
History Information of China
The Nanking Massacre (Nanjing Massacre)
The Nanjing Massacre and the Tokyo War Crime Trials
The Nanking Atrocities
The Nanking Massacre
The other Holocaust - Nanjing
Japanese War Crimes in general
Japanese War Crimes
Censorship of History Books for Japanese Schoolchildren
Children and Textbooks Japan Network21
INDEX TO SELECTED IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY WAR CRIMES
The Rape of Nanking (1937), also known as the Nanjing Massacre
The Bangka Island Massacre (1942): Slaughter of Australian Army Nurses
The Bataan Death March (1942)
The Sandakan Death March (1945)
Murder and cannibalism on the Kokoda Track (1942)
Conscripting women for sexual slavery in Japanese Army brothels (1937-1945)
Mutilation and murder of Dutch civilians in Borneo
Murder and cannibalism - captured American pilots
INDEX TO SELECTED IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY WAR CRIMES
Murder of American pilots and aircrew at Midway (1942)
The bombing of the hospital ship Manunda (1942)
The sinking of the hospital ship Centaur (1943)
Extermination of survivors of merchant vessels sunk by the Japanese (1943-45)
BATAAN DEATH MARCH
The courageous defense of Bataan had a sad and ignominious end. Marching their prisoners toward camps in northern Luzon, the Japanese denied food and water to the sick and starving men. When the weakest prisoners began to straggle, guards shot or bayoneted them and threw the bodies to the side of the road. Japanese guards may have killed 600 Americans and 10,000 Filipino prisoners. News of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had outraged the American people; news of the "Bataan Death March" filled them with bitter hatred.
The Wikipedia had the following Quote with source at end.
As in other dictatorships, irrational brutality, hatred and fear became commonplace. Perceived failure, or insufficient devotion to the Emperor would attract punishment, frequently of the physical kind. In the military, officers would assault and beat men under their command, who would pass the beating on to lower ranks, all the way down. In POW camps, this meant prisoners received the worst beatings of all.
de Jong, Louis . The collapse of a colonial society. The Dutch in Indonesia during the Second World War, translation J. Kilian, C. Kist and J. Rudge, introduction J. Kemperman, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 206, Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press, 289 311 417. ISBN 90 6718 203 6.
The following is a direct quote from Wikoipedia with sources at end.
The same day, veteran soldier Yasuji Kaneko admitted to The Washington Post that the women "cried out, but it didn't matter to us whether the women lived or died. We were the emperor's soldiers. Whether in military brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance."
On April 17, 2007, Yoshimi and another historian, Hirofumi Hayashi, announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokeitai (naval secret police), directly coerced women to work in frontline brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels.
On 12 May 2007, journalist Taichiro Kaijimura announced the discovery of 30 Netherland government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced massed prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang.
In other cases, some victims from East Timor testified they were forced when they were not old enough to have started menstruating and repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers.
A Dutch-Indonesian "comfort woman", Jan Ruff-O'Hearn (now resident in Australia), who gave evidence to the U.S. committee, said the Japanese Government had failed to take responsibility for its crimes, that it did not want to pay compensation to victims and that it wanted to rewrite history. Ruff-O'Hearn said that she had been raped "day and night" for three months by Japanese soldiers when she was 21.
To this day, only one Japanese woman published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former "comfort woman" forced to work for showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota.
There are different theories on the breakdown of the comfort women's place of origin. While some sources claim that the majority of the women were from Japan, others, including Yoshimi, argue as many as 200,000 women, mostly from Korea and China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands, and Australia were forced to engage in sexual activity.
Life as a POW - excerpts taken from the book "BANZAI YOU BASTARDS!" by Sgt. Jack Edwards, former POW #159
..." the food was never enough - the meager rice ration was supplemented at morning and night by about ½ pint of watery vegetable soup. . . we only had two thin blankets and had to sleep on wooden boards with only about 1 ½ feet of space per man... at every conceivable opportunity the guards would find an excuse to hit us.
. . .we were screamed at, shouted at, slapped, kicked and bashed. . . for the slightest infringement (of the rules) anyone could be sentenced to the "Ice Box!! (a wooden cubicle five feet high and only two feet six inches square) - you had nothing, not even a blanket and it was impossible to lie down.
. . .when the call came for !!volunteers!! to work in the mine, I signed up - anything would be better than life in that camp.
IN THE MINE. . .
. . ."we were issued black cardboard helmets, canvas shoes, a threadbare short-sleeve green shirt and shorts - these were to be our "mining clothes". .. we marched up about 250 steps to the brow of the hill (above the camp) and in the distance below us, we could see the mine head - we had to clamber all the way down on a very rough path with stone steps. . . we were marched to the mine entrance and forced to stop at a small Japanese shrine to pray for our safety in the mine. . . then into the mine. . . for forty-five minutes we trudged on and then turning off to the left, climbed down very rough steps under a low ceiling for several levels. . . warm air hit us . . . water dripped down, quite warm. . . down we went, getting hotter and hotter. . . .there were cries of pain all around as we caught our backs or arms on the jagged walls and low ceiling. . . .I thought we were descending into hell.
"after descending nearly 800 steps, we were given our tools - a chunkel and a two-handled bamboo basket . . .our task was to scrape the ore into the basket, and then carry it to the trolley (ore cart) which we called "bogies" . . .at lunch time we would return to the rest area to eat our "bento" - only to find it alive with cockroaches . . .we brushed them off and ate the tasteless cold rice and bits of green - it seemed like a banquet to us ravenous prisoners. . . at the end of the day we had to climb those terrible stairs to get out of the mine, and then still face that long climb back up over the mountain to the camp. .. no-one spoke during those climbs - you needed all your breath.!!
The following eyewitness accounts were told by surviving prisoners and soldiers who found the mutilated bodies of their lost comrades during WWII. They told how the Japanese placed Bamboo shoots under the tied down Allied Prisoner. The bamboo shoots are rapid growing, even so it might take days for a prisoner to finally die from the sharpened Bamboo tips that pierced their body bit by painful, slowly, bit. Japanese soldiers raped, beheaded, stabbed, set people on fire, buried people alive, tore out the eyes of babies, ripped open the stomachs of pregnant women, and then the Japs laughed while the victims suffered. The Japs would kick and beat both civilians and POWs daily and often cut them open with their swords so that their intestines would hang out. Many cases of cutting open pregnant women were reported some of this done on a bet of what the sex of the baby was. Beating and torturing civilians and POWs in the most painful ways was a common sport to the Japs. (Sources are the stories of our own POWs)
Some prisoners that were captured had their testicles and private parts cut off, then placed into their mouths and their mouths sewn up. Then they would send the prisoner back to the Allied Battle lines.
Our Mother just happened to mention one day that her husband had told her about one of his friends who had been captured, but was finally released afterwards, WITH HIS TONGUE CUT OUT!
The extracts are reminiscences written by survivors of the war's worst atrocities. Statistics tell only a part of the full story ~ for example, that of the 85,000 captured at the fall of Singapore, one third died in captivity ~ and only those who read books such as this will be able to understand the horrific way in which the prisoners died, and the inhumane way in which the survivors were forced to live. (When the Japanese troops burst their way into the Tanglin Military Hospital they bayoneted not only the patients in the beds, they bayoneted also the patients on the operating tables as well as the doctors and nurses treating them.)
Japan's invasions were far more brutal than Germany's invasions. They killed, enslaved and raped millions of civilians. Japan was the only country to use chemical weapons, and it pioneered biological warfare by dropping plague, cholera and anthrax germs on Chinese villages. The number of people submitted to medical experiments in Japan's secret labs is much higher than the number of German prisoners who suffered the same fate. Nobody will ever know the number of "sex slaves" who were used (probably more than one million) and who died (sources say up to 90%). Prisoners of war in German camps were not mistreated (only 1% died) but prisoners of war in Japanese camps were used as slave laborers (and 31% died). If one includes China and all the occupied countries (Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, etc), Japan caused the death of about 12 million civilians, far more than those caused by Germany.
Red Cross parcels were never distributed to the prisoners they fed their captors instead. Occasionally a starving man would endeavor to recover something from where the parcels were stored, but the
retribution if caught would be to be beaten unconscious and then to be tortured, sometimes to death, sometimes not. Japanese torture is bestial, as these accounts, written by survivors who are not
professional authors, bear irrefutable witness. Strung by his thumbs to a branch, (His toes, even with the rocks attached, Yet still failing to reach the ground) He awaits the morning's bayonet drill.
His friends had had it worse. Old Joe, Trussed with barbed wire, mouth stopped,
Pumped through his nose with water, Died beneath the boots that jumped and split
His distended stomach open To their wearers' laughter.
13/12/1937 - 3/1938: Rape of Nanking or "Nanjing Datusha" (369,366 Chinese killed, and 80,000 women raped)
18/4/1942: 250,000 Chinese civilians murdered in retaliation for Chinese help to USA airmen
23/12/1943 - 14/2/1944: Rape of Manila (all male Filipinos 14 and older condemmed to die, 100,000 killed)
1937-45: Forced prostitution or "jugun ianfu" (400,000 Chinese women, 250,000 Korean women, 90% death rate, largest and most deadly mass rape recorded in history)
1933: Shiro Ishii'ss medical experiments in Manchuria (victims vivisected while still alive)
Only nation that used biological weapons in WW II
1939: Shiro Ishii's biological experiments in Harbin, China (10,000 prisoners died)
1940: Air bombing of Chinese villages with germs of bubonic plague (October 1940, Quzhou), cholera (1940, Yunnan), anthrax, etc (200,000 die)
Only nation that used chemical weapons in WW II
10 million Asians were used as slaves and only 5,000 or so survivors may still be alive.
Death rate in Japanese prisoner camps: 38.2 %
25/4/1943-6/44: 16,000 POWs and 80,000 Asian slave labourers died constructing the Thai-Burma railway
Japan is responsible for the casualties of more than 20 millions in Asia
Few Remember WWII Massacre Victims From Associated Press October 4, 2003
ST. LOUIS - Glenn McDole lives to tell of the suffering he endured as a prisoner of war on Palawan island in the Philippines. He hopes a new memorial will help people remember his 139 comrades who were killed by Japanese during one of their many massacres. There were 150 American servicemen taken prisoner in 1942 by the Japanese at Corregidor and Bataan in the Philippines, then a U.S. possession. Malnourished, injured and ill, the American captives reported to work Dec. 14, 1944. Only 11 lived through the day. Then after working through the day, the men were herded into three air-raid trenches at the Puerto Princesa Prison Camp. Survivors say the captors poured fuel into the pits and ignited it with torches and grenades. Prisoners trying to escape were killed with machine-gun fire or bayonets.
Chicago Daily News's quiet-spoken Far Eastern Correspondent Archibald T. Steele wrote the following story July 21 1941 after interviewing the person.
First I was beaten repeatedly about the head and this was followed by 50 lashes with a whip. . . . Then I was flattened on my back, my head was jerked back and water was poured into my nostrils. . . . Next they strapped me into the 'tiger's chair'—an ordinary chair anchored to the floor. Bricks were placed under my feet and piled up one by one. As each brick stretched my taut leg muscles farther, the agony became unbearable. I fainted seven times within 40 minutes. . . . They gave me what they called the 'electric punishment.' I was forced to grasp two electrally charged tubes and the voltage was gradually stepped up. Every inch of my body trembled like jelly. I felt as though I were going to burst." But Liu did not talk; months later the Japanese released him, still under suspicion, let him join the Puppet Government at Nanking. Traveling one day from Shanghai to Nanking by train, Liu outwitted shadowing spies, slipped off at a way station. By devious route he then made his way to Chungking, told his story to Steele.
The above is from Wikipedia article on Japanese war crimes and
See the History site The Fourties the Japanese section http://www.forties.net/japs.html
To learn more just do a search on Google for “Jap war crimes”
Actual interviews are in the National Archives. These stories were not made up. They happened to our POWs and innocent civilians. There is no excuse for this inhumanity to fellow humans. To kill an enemy in time of war is one thing but to torture, maim, vivisect, rape, behead and kill innocent civilians and POWs is inexcusable. This savage behavior must be outlawed and not tolerated.
George Bush's Sr. comrades eaten by their Japanese PoW guards (http://www.worldaffairsboard.com/showthread.php?t=850)
By Charles Laurence in New York (Filed: 26/10/2003)
The former President George Bush narrowly escaped being beheaded and eaten by Japanese soldiers when he was shot down over the Pacific in the Second World War, a shocking new history published in America has revealed.
The book, Flyboys, is the result of historical detective work by James Bradley, whose father was among the marines later photographed raising the flag over the island of Iwo Jima.
Lt George Bush, then a 20-year-old pilot, was among nine airmen who escaped from their planes after being shot down during bombing raids on Chichi Jima, a tiny island 700 miles south of Tokyo, in September 1944 - and was the only one to evade capture by the Japanese.
The horrific fate of the other eight "flyboys" was established in subsequent war crimes trials on the island of Guam, but details were sealed in top secret files in Washington to spare their families distress.
Mr Bradley has established that they were tortured, beaten and then executed, either by beheading with swords or by multiple stab-wounds from bayonets and sharpened bamboo stakes. Four were then butchered by the island garrison's surgeons and their livers and meat from their thighs eaten by senior Japanese officers.
Mr Bradley pieced together the horrific truth from secret transcripts of the war crimes trials, given to him by a former officer and lawyer who was an official witness at the time, and the testimony of surviving Japanese veterans.
A radio operator, Marve Mershon, was marched to a freshly dug grave, blindfolded, and made to kneel for beheading by sword, testified a Japanese soldier, named as Iwakawa, at the war crimes trial. "When the flier was struck, he did not cry out, but made a slight groan."
The next day a Japanese officer, Major Sueo Matoba, decided to include American flesh in a sake-fuelled feast he laid on for officers including the commander-in-chief on the island, Gen Yoshio Tachibana. Both men were later tried and executed for war crimes.
A Japanese medical orderly who helped the surgeon prepare the ingredients said: "Dr Teraki cut open the chest and took out the liver. I removed a piece of flesh from the flyer's thigh, weighing about six pounds and measuring four inches wide, about a foot long."
Another crewman, Floyd Hall, met a similar fate. Adml Kinizo Mori, the senior naval officer on Chichi Jima, told the court that Major Matoba brought "a delicacy" to a party at his quarters - a specially prepared dish of Floyd Hall's liver.
According to Adml Mori, Matoba told him: "I had it pierced with bamboo sticks and cooked with soy sauce and vegetables." They ate it in "very small pieces", believing it "good medicine for the stomach", the admiral recalled.
A third victim of cannibalism, Jimmy Dye, had been put to work as a translator when, several weeks later, Capt Shizuo Yoshii - who was later tried and executed - called for his liver to be served at a party for fellow officers. Parts of a fourth airman, Warren Earl Vaughn, were also eaten and the remaining four were executed, one by being clubbed to death.
The following is from a History site http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww2/after/jap/w2ja-wcmcc.html
First the Japs killed the soldiers and all men of soldier age. “ Next came the civilians. Japanese soldiers as a reward for taking a cHinese town were normally given 3 days to do as they please, including rape and pillage. In the case of Nanking the rape, killing, and pillaging of the civilian population continued for nearly 2 months. The Japanese soldiers proceeded to shoot thousands down in the street, including the elderly, women and children. Shop keepers were ordered to open their shops which were then looted and the owner killed. Japanese soldiers used both living and dead Chinese soldiers and civilians for bayonet practice. They mutilated, tortured, and maimed untold Chinese. These were not all assembly-line, dispassionate murders. Reports indicate that the Japanese hung Chinese by their tongues and threw some in acid.
The Japanese dismembered victims, used grenades. Others were impaled, and flayed. [Chang] No one knows how many rapes occurred. One estimate suggests that 80,000 women were raped. [Yin and Young] Soldiers collected women by the truck load. They were then allocated to groups of soldiers for gang raping after which they were normally mutilated or shot. [Kozo] One American woman wrote, "There probably is no crime that has not been committed in this city today. Thirty girls were taken from language school last night, and today I have heard scores of heartbreaking stories of girls who were taken from their homes last night--one of the girls was but 12 years old. ... Tonight a truck passed in which there were 8 or 10 girls, and as it passed they called out "Ging ming! Ging ming!"--save our lives." [Vautrin] One victim who was 8-years old at the time described her experiences. First her grandparents and parents were shot in front of her. Then her older sisters were killed. She was bayoneted three times and left for dead. Thousands of children were in fact bayoneted. [Shuqin] Children not killed outright when the women were collected often died from abandonment and starvation. So many men, women and children with machetes that the soldiers often tired and to rest. Many Chinese shot or butchered, but not yet dead were buried alive. [Mills] The news stories flowing out of Nanking to the international press caused the Japanese Army to establish brothels which were staffed with women seized from occupied countries, initially Korea. These were the so called comfort women. European diplomats tried to stem the killing. A NAZI official was elected to lead this group. He even appealed to Hitler to intercede with the Japanese Government. Rabe wrote. " During their atrocities, no difference was made between adults and children. There were girls under the age of 8 and women over the age of 70 who were raped and then, in the most brutal way possible, knocked down and beat up. We found corpses of women on beer glasses and others who had been lanced by bamboo shoots."
“Today in Japan they deny that these events ever took place.” and they refuse to apologize. (from a history site http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww2/after/jap/w2ja-wcmcc.html)
Many thousands of Children and Women were raped by the Japs and pregnant women cut open for sport. Thousands of civilians were tortured in the most painful way. Thousands of civilians were beaten, tortured, bayoneted, vivisected (abdomen cut open so intestines were exposed), and beheaded daily.
Below results of child rape Results of the Jap sport of vivisection
The Japs also cut open persons abdomens and sicced the dogs on them.
The Japs often tortured our POWs and civilians in front of others.
Millions of persons were cruelly massacred
Here the Japs are playing their Sport bayonet practice by killing innocent civilians.
Our POWs were tortured, mutilated, and beheaded often in front of others.
The above pictures and stories were not made up. They happened to our POWs and innocent civilians. There is no excuse for this inhumanity to fellow humans. To kill an enemy in time of war is one thing but to torture, maim, vivisect, rape, behead and kill innocent civilians and POWs is inexcusable. This savage behavior must be outlawed and not tolerated. This is criminal behavior and criminals such as these should be executed.
Now here is the shocker.
This savage behavior is still being done today around the world. The killing of Americans in a surprise attack is in the planning stages. Experts on national security say that the 3,000 that died on 9-11 are actually a small number in comparison to the numbers that could die in a well planned attack on a large American city.
What can be done about this?
First we need to set standards of human behavior even in war.
Second those who ignore these should be severely punished. Criminals who willfully take the lives of others and who torture, rape, maim and cause severe pain should be executed not coddled as we do now.
All high school students should be educated on history and in these matters.
We cannot control what people do in other countries but we can keep our country prepared against attacks BECAUSE IF WE DON'T, IT IS POSSIBLE THAT WE COULD SUFFER THIS CRUEL SAVAGE BEHAVIOR ON US AND OUR FAMILIES. IT IS A FACT OF HISTORY.
This is especially true if one looks at the Asian and Muslim mind set. They do not value human life. Witness the way the Japanese treated civilians and POWs. And look at Muslim run states today. Non Muslims are killed. Women become slaves and are denied education. Human rights including freedom of religion are denied. Don't believe it look at Iran. Even their own bible, the Koran, it states that it is OK to kill infidels and those who wish to believe in another religion. Their own Koran states in many places to kill the non believers. And Muslims believe that every word in the Koran is the word of God to be obeyed. Then they will explain that it is only the Arabic language version that is the word of God. But look at the translations they still say to kill the unbelievers. Islam is not merely a religion it is a way of life which includes a legal, and judicial system. Look at France and Europe. Muslims were allowed to immigrate there. Now the Muslims want take over. Muslim teenagers are burning hundreds of cars. Europe is changing and becoming Muslim. Once they get into power they will enforce their Sharia law and throw out the constitution. Of course they deny this because that is their best weapon. They are anti liberty, anti democracy and anti freedom of religion. If you have any doubts just look at Iran. Many believe our best defense is to stop allowing then to immigrate here and to deport the rest. Read the Koran you will find that it is not the religion of love as they try to mislead you into thinking, rather it is a system of hate, subjection of women and world domination.
1950 - 1953
Mobilized 5,720,000. Killed 54,246.USA 135,000 also killed in China. Wounded 103,240. POW deaths 8,000
From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages
We fought to keep the communist north from taking over South Korea.
Battle to Defend Height 1211 The battle to defend Height 1211 during the Korean War was one of the fiercest battles in the war. The height situated in the east of Kangwon Province was a major strongpoint of the N Korean People's Army. Sometimes they fought hand to hand. The battle continued day and night. They called the height "heart-break ridge" as it hurt their minds when they saw it. They also called its valley "trap valley" as it allowed no intruder to escape alive. From www1.korea-np.co.jp/
After the withdrawal south of the Kum River and the destruction of the bridges across it, the US21st regiment now found itself with a total of only 325 men between the two battalions that composed the regiment to face the approximately 20,000 NKPA soldiers bearing down on them on the opposite bank of the river. MG Dean decided to move up the 19th Infantry regiment from Taejon and what was left of the 34th Regiment from their earlier fight in Choenan to reinforce the 21st. With the addition of the 19th and the 34th roughly 4,300 men were now in defensive positions south of the Kum River...the US24th Division had already lost roughly 1,800 men and many more would be lost before this battle was over. ...The equipment they were most short on was radios, which would ultimately play a key role in the failure of the Kum River defense. L company of the US34th was on the farthest left flank of the US defensive line. The company commander had no communications with anyone, which means he had no situational awareness of the overall battle plan. The North Koreans began shelling L company’s position and began their river crossing operation...Before the North Koreans began any operations on the US19th regiment, their scouts had located the positions of the US field artillery positions located to the rear of the US19th. The North Korean infantry simply crossed the river where the US34th had withdrawn and walked around and to the rear of the US19th to destroy the field artillery locations. The US field artillery were really the only guns capable of stopping the North Korean armor. In one quick attack the North Koreans were able to destroy a battalion of US field artillery and further limit their already desperate ability to destroy NKPA armor. ..However, the US19th continued a rugged defense against the NKPA infantry which had crossed the Kum and was eventually able to repel them, while US air power was able to inflict heavy damage on enemy tanks trying to forge the Kum River. Amazingly the US regiment held off two North Korean divisions and even inflicted heavy casualties on them while doing so. For the entire day of July 15th things were actually looking up. However, it wouldn’t last, things would change quite drastically that night. From rokdrop.com/...//2007/11/outsidetaejon.jpg
VFW Post 10216 "Hill 180 Memorial" is named in honor of a historic Korean War Battle of "Bayonet Hill", Hill 180. It was so named because for the Bayonet Charge up Hill 180, led by "Medal of Honor" recipient then Captain Lewis L. Millet. Now a Retired Army Colonel www.vfw10216.com/hill180.htm
Search and destroy mission www.britannica.com/ebc/art-73026/US-soldiers-...
On this site a veteran says “There was no reason for America to be involved in a war where there was nothing to defend, it was a pure example of abuse of authority by a government with tyrannical ideas. So please tell me someone, why can't they show any movies concerning Vietnam on Memorial day?”
1964-1973 Almost 9 million service personnel were mobilized, at least 58,253 were killed some may still die of their wounds yet. 53,303 were physically wounded. Thousands were mentally wounded. There are 591 American POWs. From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages
We fought to keep the communists from taking over SE Asia.
Nearly 600,000 other people died. I served during this time. If you didn't volunteer there was a good change you would be drafted. When I got home I was insulted and made fun of. Many vets had their lives wrecked. Many of us still have nightmares and flashbacks. Can you imagine what is it like having to pick up up your best friends body parts and put them into a body bag? Many have cancer and other problems related to this needless war. Did my brothers die for freedom? Were we sent to die so private companies made a profit. Rich kids often got out of serving. Later they made fun of us. A common opinion of veterans from this time is that the generals were not allowed to win the war. Is there a parallel today with Chaney's “Helliburton” ripping off our troops and making millions in profit from them? If the President, Vice President and members of congress so dedicated to our troops why is it that neither they or their kids are serving in Iraq? I am just asking a Historical Question.
Operation Desert Storm 1991
Mobilized 540,000. Killed 269 Wounded 357 POWs 23
On the morning of August 2, 1990 the mechanized infantry, armor, and tank units of the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of that country. The invasion triggered a United States response, Operation DESERT SHIELD, to deter any invasion of Kuwait's oil rich neighbor, Saudi Arabia. On August 7, deployment of U.S. forces began. United Nations Security Council Resolutions 660 and 662 condemned Iraq's invasion and annexation and called for the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces. On August 20 President Bush signed National Security Directive 45, "U.S. Policy in Response to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait," outlining U.S. objectives - which included the "immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait," and the "restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government to replace the puppet regime installed by Iraq."1
A U.N. ultimatum, Security Council Resolution 678, followed on November 29, 1990. It stipulated that if Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein did not remove his troops from Kuwait by January 15, 1991 a U.S.-led coalition was authorized to drive them out. Early in the morning of January 17, Baghdad time, the U.S.-led coalition launched air attacks against Iraqi targets. On February 24, coalition ground forces begin their attack. On February 27, Kuwait City was declared liberated, and with allied forces having driven well into Iraq, President Bush and his advisers decided to halt the war. A cease-fire took effect at 8:00 the following morning.
The United States Army has a long tradition of humanitarian relief. No such operation has proven as costly or shocking, however, as that undertaken in Somalia from August 1992 to March 1994. Greeted initially by Somalis happy to be saved from starvation, U.S. troops were slowly drawn into interclan power struggles and ill-defined "nation-building" missions. The American people woke up one day in early October 1993 to news reports of dozens of our soldiers killed or wounded in fierce fighting in the streets of the capital city Mogadishu. These disturbing events of a decade ago have taken on increasing meaning after the horrific attacks of 11 September 2001.
The Army began by assisting in relief operations in Somalia, but by December 1992 it was deeply engaged on the ground in Operation RESTORE HOPE in that chaotic African country. In the spring of the following year, the initial crisis of imminent starvation seemed to be over, and the U.S.-led Unified Task Force (UNITAF) turned over the mission to the United Nations, leaving only a small logistical, aviation, and quick reaction force behind to assist. The American public seemed to forget about Somalia. That sense of "mission accomplished" made the evens of 3-4 October 1993 more startling, as Americans reacted to the spectacle of dead U.S. soldiers being dragged through the streets by cheering Somali mobs-the very people Americans thought they had rescued from starvation.
This brochure, prepared to honor the tenth anniversary of Operation RESTORE HOPE beginning on 8 December, places the events of the firefight of 3-4 October 1993 into the wider context of the U.S. humanitarian, political, and military operation to rescue a people and a state from anarchy and chaos. The dedication and sacrifices made by U.S. soldiers, airmen, and marines in that war-torn country provide a lesson in heroism that remains compelling a decade later.
This brochure was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of Military History by Dr. Richard W. Stewart, Chief of the Histories Division and a veteran of Somalia. We hope that his absorbing account-with its list of further readings-will stimulate further interest in and study of this extraordinarily important U.S. Operation.
JOHN S. BROWN Brigadier General, U.S. Army Chief of Military History
The United States entered Somalia in December 1992 to stop the imminent starvation of hundreds of thousands of people. Although it succeeded in this mission, the chaotic political situation of that unhappy land bogged down U.S. and allied forces in what became, in effect, a poorly organized United Nations nation-building operation. In a country where the United States, perhaps naively, expected some measure of gratitude for its help, its forces received increasing hostility as they became more deeply embroiled into trying to establish a stable government. The military and diplomatic effort to bring together all the clans and political entities was doomed to failure as each subelement continued to attempt to out-jockey the others for supreme power. The Somali people were the main victims of their own leaders, but forty-two Americans died and dozens more were wounded before the United States and the United Nations capitulated to events and withdrew. American military power had established the conditions for peace in the midst of a famine and civil war, but, unlike later in Bosnia, the factions were not exhausted from the fighting and were not yet willing to stop killing each other and anyone caught in the middle. There was no peace to keep. The American soldier had, as always, done his best under difficult circumstances to perform a complex and often confusing mission. But the best soldiers in the world can only lay the foundation for peace; they cannot create peace itself. (from The United States Army in Somilia http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/Somalia/Somalia.htm)
Have not found anything on
this 1995 yet but the tribes in Rwanda were busy killing each other
and there were at least a million murders in this little country in
1994. It appears that the US backed down on a UN request to go in and
stop the genocide. U.S. Contribution To Darfur Airlift Operation
Begins JULY 17, 2005 PATCH BARRACKS, STUTTGART, GERMANY – U.S.
European Command began the deployment of Airmen and equipment to
Kigali, Rwanda Thursday to provide logistical and airlift support of
Rwandan forces as part of the African Union’s expanded mission
in the Darfur region of Sudan. The U.S. airlift is part of NATO’s
response to support the AU’s expanded peacekeeping mission in
Darfur with logistics and training. The U.S. airlift is part of the
larger multinational effort to improve security and create conditions
in which humanitarian assistance can be more effectively provided to
the people of Darfur. NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
announced on 9 June that the Alliance would help the AU expand its
peacekeeping force in Darfur from 3,300 to about 7,700 in the coming
months. Planning for the airlift mission is being coordinated by the
U.S. European Command Plans and Operations Center here, working with
NATO logistics planners at the AU Headquarters in Addis Ababa,
Afganistan Nov 2001- Present Day
I knew the 2 soldiers killed today, and the 2 that were wounded. One I was particularly closer to - he lived with me in the same tent on the FOB I just left (where I lived for the last 3 1/2 months). I can't believe he's gone. We used to sit and talk outside of the tent. He would comfort me. It's just not fair. He was a great man, a great soldier, and a great NCO. He will be deeply missed. He had also served in Iraq. He and the other soldier that was killed (a female) were part of the Army's Civil Affairs team for that PRT. The CA Team is responsible for giving humanitarian assistance to needy Afghans. They hand out school supplies, food, clothing, shoes, short-wave radios, peace papers, and assist with medical missions. They didn't deserve this.
(from http://www.flickr.com/photos/violinsoldier/237698985/ )
There have been 892 coalition deaths -- 558 Americans, six Australians, 112 Britons, 88 Canadians, three Czech, 15 Danes, 16 Dutch, three Estonians, one Finn, 12 French, 22 Germans, two Hungarians, 11 Italians, one Lithuanian, three Norwegians, five Poles, two Portuguese, seven Romanians, one South Korean, 23 Spaniards, two Swedes -- in the war on terror as of July 25, 2008, according to a CNN count. Below are the names of the soldiers, Marines, airmen and sailors whose deaths have been reported by their country's governments. The troops died in support of the U.S.-led Operation Enduring Freedom or were part of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. At least 2,257 U.S. personnel have been wounded in action, according to the Pentagon. (from cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/oef.casualties/index.html
“The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7, 2001, was launched by the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. It was the beginning of the War on Terror. The stated purpose of the invasion was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbor to al-Qaeda.
Two military operations in Afghanistan seek to stabilize the country. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is a combat operation involving coalition partners led by the United States against Al Qaeda remnants, primarily in the eastern and southern parts of the country along the Pakistan border. OEF is not a NATO operation, although many coalition partners are NATO members. Approximately 20,000 troops are in OEF, including approximately 18,000 U.S. forces. The second operation is the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), established by the international community in 2002 to stabilize the country. NATO assumed control of ISAF the following year. By May 2008, ISAF had an estimated 47,000 troops from 40 countries, with NATO members providing the core of the force. The United States has approximately 17,000 troops in ISAF.” (from Wikipedia article on War in Afghanistan)
Operation Iraqi Freedom March 2003-Present
What is the result of this war? Total American Casualties over 31,000 Allied casualties 53,000 4,542 American deaths
(from cnn.com/) Iraqi civilian deaths about 23,000
100 female U.S. service members have died in Iraq as of July 24 2008
The following quote is from the Wikipedia article on Iraq War “An ongoing conflict, which has been termed the war in Iraq, "Iraqi War", "Gulf War II", the "Second Persian Gulf War", or "Operation Iraqi Freedom," began on March 20, 2003 with the United States-led invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition composed of U.S. and United Kingdom troops supported by smaller contingents from Australia, Denmark, Poland, and other nations.
At the start of the war, U.S. officials argued that Iraq and its possession and further pursuit of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed an imminent threat to the security and interests of the United States, Europe and the other nations of the Middle East. The intelligence was supported by British intelligence . Furthermore Russian intelligence linked Iraq with terrorism and Germany gave intelligence assistance in the preparation of the war. Neither, however, confirmed the claims of WMD in Iraq.. The intelligence, especially concerning WMD, received criticism,  and weapons inspectors found no evidence of WMD. After the invasion, the Iraq Survey Group concluded that Iraq had ended its WMD programs in 1991 and had no active programs at the time of the invasion, but that they intended to resume production if and when the Iraq sanctions were lifted. Although some earlier degraded remnants of misplaced or abandoned WMD were found, they were not the weapons for which the coalition invaded. Some U.S. officials accused Saddam Hussein of harboring and supporting Al-Qaeda , but no evidence of any collaborative relationship has been found. Other reasons for the invasion stated by officials included Iraq's financial support for the families of Palestinian suicide bombers, Iraqi government human rights abuses, spreading democracy, and Iraq's oil reserves, although the latter has been denied by other officials. In June 2008, the US Senate Intelligence Committee released a report concluding that Bush and other top officials misrepresented and exaggerated available intelligence on Iraq's alleged terrorist connections and weapons capabilities during a public campaign to present the rationale for invading Iraq, though Republicans assert the findings demonstrate that faulty intelligence was given to Bush officials.
The invasion led to the quick defeat of the Iraqi military, the flight of President Saddam Hussein, his capture in December 2003 and his execution in December 2006. The U.S.-led coalition occupied Iraq and attempted to establish a new democratic government. But shortly after the initial invasion, violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups led to asymmetric warfare with the Iraqi insurgency, strife between many Sunni and Shia Iraqi groups, and al-Qaeda operations in Iraq. Estimates of the number of people killed range from over 150,000 to more than one million. Member nations of the Coalition began to withdraw their forces as public opinion favoring troop withdrawals increased and as Iraqi forces began to take responsibility for security. Thirteen months after the beginning of the Iraq troop surge of 2007 the U.S. Department of Defense has claimed "the security, political and economic trends in Iraq continue to be positive; however, they remain fragile, reversible and uneven." (from Wikipedia article Iraq War see this article for the listing of footnotes.)
Now both or our political parties are talking about getting out with honor. Basically we are trying to stabilize the government there so we can have a big ally in the middle east.
List of Warren Area Veterans as of Aug 2011
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