1

History of Center Line and Warren Michigan


Compiled by Prof Wesley E Arnold


Humble Historian

A FREE PRESS IS THE SAFEGUARD OF FREEDOM.

WHERE THEY BURN BOOKS THEY WILL BURN MEN.

Where they take away freedoms

THEY WILL TAKE AWAY MEN!

Library of Congress Cataloging In Publication Data

Arnold, Wesley Edward

History of Warren Michigan

1. History of Center Line Michigan

2. History of Warren Michigan

3. Some sociological commentary

4. Pictures

ISBN 0-915935-30-9

This book and good quality pictures are available on Compact Disk

direct from publisher

Copyright 2010 Wesley Edward Arnold Last revised March 29, 2010

This book may be copied for Educational use but not for commercial sale

0-915935-30-9 History of Center Line Michigan

Pre History 4

Paleo, Archaic, Woodland periods 6

The Peoples of Warren 7

Bloody Invasions 8

What did we learn from the Indians & vise versa 8

Our Local Animals 9

What was the area like in 1701 9

French Rule 9

Malaria and ague 10

1745 parties to kill scalp, torture any settler 10

George Washington 10

Cannibals 10

The Language Problem 10

The Bloody British rule 11

The British had American settlers killed 11

Pontiac’s rebellion 11

Hamilton the Hair Buyer 12

The Treaty of Paris in 1783 12

Three thousand persons were scalped or made captives by bands from Detroit 12

American Scalps were paraded daily in Detroit 13

Americans went on the attack 13

Cruelly attacked gentle peace loving Moravians 13

1794 Jay’s treaty GET OUT! 14

Christian Clemens 13

George Rogers Clark 13

In 1805 Detroit burned down 13

MICHIGAN BECOMES A TERRITORY 13

In 1805 The American emigration had begun 13

Peaceful Indians Built Michigan's First Road 13

Peaceful Christians Slaughtered 13

The Americans are coming! 13

10,000 Americans Kidnapped 14

They fooled a general 15

In 1813 hundreds of soldiers died from diseases 14

Old Hickory beat British in New Orleans 15

Battle on Lake Erie 15

Due to Put-in-Bay In American Hands to Stay 15

By 1816 the British had withdrawn 15

Epidemics Cholera small pox many children and adults died of diseases we have cures for now 16

Terrible influenza epidemic killed thousands 16

Many women died in childbirth. 16

Indian Trails “centre line trail” 17

Rule of law at last Peace and Democracy Rein 17

First recorded visit to Center Line area 17

An Indian woman saved the Governor’s life 18

Macomb County organized January of 1818 17

1825 Erie Canal 18

Land For Sale! 18

Settlers came from many countries 19

Rule of Law at Last 19

The land office booming in the 1830s. 19

First Center Line & Warren Land Owners 19

What was on the pioneers table? 26

One good turn led to another 26

First things first 27

Determination 27

Kunrod’s Corners 28

Times of Peace and Joy 28

Daily Activities 30

Historic Diary 30

The good of the Good Old Days 31

What was bad about the Old Days. 31

Market 32

Transportation 35

Ride the Stage 35

Statewide fire 35

Churches 36

St Clement 36

Fire and Police 38

Locals 40

Pioneer Cemeteries 41

Who's Who of Center Line 44

Wars 44

What can be learned from History 48

Roads and Farms 49

Schools 51

Civic Groups 53

Fire Protection 53

Libraries and Recreation 55

Interurbans and Great Depression 58

Mail 59

What we did before TV 60

The Good Old Days 61

1950s 61

1960s 66

1970s 70

1980s 72

1990s 72

2000s 73

Historical observations 74

Did Center Line water actually burn? 76

We are sitting on millions of gallons of oil, gas 76

Mom the cow fell into the well! 76

Grandma took on a bear 76

Mayors of Center Line 77

Works Cited 78

APPENDIX

What can be learned from History? 79

Pictures 89


Compiled by Prof.. Wesley Edward Arnold MA. With thanks to the help of many folks to told me their memories.

If all of the history of our area was imaged on the face of a clock the prehistory and total history of mankind would take up only a small fraction of the last second.  To get true perspective we need to look at the big picture.

Note the new better spelling of the word thru, and foto which are spelled the way they should be. Languages such as English can and do change for the better. Looks strange but better.

Also note that this work contains thinking questions and comments for students for better learning.

Pre history of Warren and Center Line

For many thousands of years Warren was covered with seas, glaciers, lakes, clay, marshland and forests. Mastodon bones and other fossils found in the area date back from ten thousand years to hundreds of millions of years. Although there is no human record we read the history from the evidence left in the rocks themselves going back millions of years. The topsoil under our feet took thousands of years to build up. Below that is about a hundred feet of clay which are the remains of mountains dragged here by the glaciers from the Upper Peninsula. Below that are many layers of rock formed in many ways some from millions of years of this area being covered by shallow seas and coral reefs. There are layers of salt that extend from here to New York which are the result of salt water seas drying out. If a clock face were to represent all of prehistory and history of our area only the last fraction of a second would represent the history of mankind on this planet. Mankind's tenure on this planet has been very short in comparison to many other things. How far back does history go?

The area that became Warren was first formed from molten rock and became part of the edge of the Canadian Shield about five billion years ago as the Earth cooled. The Earth's crust later folded forming mountains and volcanoes to the north of the Lower Peninsula. The Penokean Mountain range was created in the upper peninsula of Michigan and was probably high as the present Rockies.

Over 600 million years ago in the Precambrian Era the area that would become Warren was part of a shallow sea in which sediments were deposited on the sea floor from the erosion of the mountains. After the old mountains were eroded down the Killarney Mountains were formed in the Upper Peninsula. Geologists have found sedimentary rocks layered, folded and tilted, or crumpled into wavy lines, indicating that originally flat layers were pushed up into ridges and mountains. By measuring the angle and thickness of these layers of rock (strata) and studying the places where still hidden strata appear as outcrops on the surface, geologists have determined that a great mountain chain, sometimes referred to as the Killarney Mountains, extended from Minnesota, across Wisconsin and Michigan, and on eastward into Canada. This mountain range towered over the landscape for millions of years until the combined forces of earthquakes, glaciers and weather eroded them away. We are now resting on top of the ground down Killarney Mountains.

In the Cambrian period over 500 million years ago the land was uplifted many times. With each uplift the sediments were changed and folded and new igneous rocks were forced into these formations. The mountains eroded and the sediments that were carried into the shallow sea became the layer of Cambrian Sandstone located below present day Warren.

In the Ordovician period over 425 million years ago Warren remained under the ancient sea which became alternately shallower, deeper, clear and muddy which formed the layers of limestone from millions of small animal shells and dolomite and shale formed from muddy water.

Since the Michigan area was shaped like a huge saucer it has been called the Michigan Basin by geologists.

During the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago the area of Warren was covered with deep seas with clear warm waters. Great deposits of muds and corals were formed (now called the Niagara Limestones). This is about 3200 feet below Warren now. One form of coral became the state stone (the Petoskey Stone). Toward the end of this time the seas became salty as ocean water splashed into the basin and many forms of life died. Layers of salt, and anhydrite settled in the bottom of the basin which is now down about 1200 feet below Warren. Later more limestone was formed.

During the Devonian period over 325 million years ago the climate became warm and moist. Michigan became a closed pond. This was the age of fishes and corals which formed limestone. Later as a bay formed and vegetation sediments were deposited various shales were formed.

During the Mississippian period over 310 million years ago shales, limestone and gypsum were deposited.

During the Pennsylvanian period over 280 million years ago Warren was above the sea while the center of the state was a huge swamp with huge fern like plants (which later formed coal).

During the Permian period over 220 million years ago the climate of Warren became alternately hot and dry and mild. There were saber tooth tigers, horses and other animals including dinosaurs. Erosion has removed all traces of these and almost everything else up to the end of the last glacial period. For a source for the above just look at any Michigan Geography book. (Geo of MI)

About a million years ago the climate gradually became colder and the land was covered with snow. As it continued to grow colder the snow became deeper and changed to ice under the pressure of the snow layers above. Glaciers 100's of feet thick pushed, scraped and ground the surface of the land as they advanced. Warren was covered by thick ice for thousands of years.


Center Line Rests on Top of Mountains!

There were several periods of glaciation. When the glaciers melted, deposits of glacial drift (now almost 100 feet thick) settled to the bottom of the lake which was formed at the end of the glacier. The ground we are now resting on top of is the remains of the ground down Killarney Mountains. These mountains that used to be in the upper peninsula which were themselves formed from the Penokean Mountains are now the dense clay that is under the topsoil and sand layers of Warren’s gardens. You can be historically correct when you state that Warren rests on top of mountains.

Warren thawed out but rested under an expanded Lake St. Clair until about 10,000 years ago.

As the lake level declined and the ground rose Warren at first was tundra with arctic plants, then low plants and shrubs, then gradually the following trees became dominant: Spruce, fir, pine, oak, chestnut walnut, sycamore butternut, basswood, elm, beech ash, oak, and pine. Some of the animals that have lived in the area of Warren since the glaciers and lake retreated are: wolf, giant beaver, white-tailed deer, musk ox, mastodon, American elk, Jefferson mammoth, muskrat, moose, short-tailed shrew, woodchuck,, eastern chipmunk red squirrel, gray squirrel Canada beaver, white-footed deer mouse, vole, raccoon, martin, red fox and many different species of birds. Mastodons were a special animal. What happened to them? How big were they?


Mankind has caused threatening changes but History can help.

Archaeologists tell us that man lived in Michigan at least 14,000 years ago. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 1) What is strange is that several civilizations seem to have become extinct. Scientists say that there has been as many of five extinctions of life on this planet. I mention them because they may be true and because it gives us something to think about. Mankind after all still has the specter of nuclear winter which will follow even a modest nuclear exchange perhaps brought on by terrorists. We now have serious disasters happening such as hurricanes and droughts caused by global warming which is now accepted scientific fact. Our planet is now suffering massive global extinctions of animal and plant species caused by pollution and human activity. The Carbon dioxide balance is being upset by industrialization and the global depletion of the planet’s rain forests. The Ozone layer has taken a beating leading to increase in cancers. Peoples in the past had a strong ozone layer to protect them. They lived practically their entire lives outside They did not have or need sun screen lotion. And they had clean air to breathe unlike now when thousands of people dying as a result of pollution. Our governments are not seeing to it that enough research is being done on drugs to stop the new drug resistant bacteria. Our enemies are mainly only ourselves and bacteria.


We live on a planet which is a mere speck in the vastness of a huge uninhabitable universe. It is like a big spaceship and it has no life preservers. We need to take care of our space ship as it is the only one we have. History can help us do that. History can show us where to make changes in our cultures for example to put an end to violence and needless wars thru rule of law and thru a code of conduct that must be required of every citizen of our planet-spaceship Earth. If we cannot live together in peace the nuclear weapons and biological weapons will be unleashed and we will all die. Scientists are concerned because terrorists are increasingly able to accumulate more destructive power. Nuclear weapons and materials are being stolen particularly from the old Soviet Union and now Pakistan. History warns us that weapons usually get used. Lastly history tells us that we had better pay attention to science. Medical scientists are warning us that more medical research needs to be done to find antibiotics against super germs. With the human population soon to be 7 billion our enemies the bacteria and viruses have a huge target population in which to develop mutations. Super germs are increasing at an unprecedented rate and we need to develop antibiotics against them. We had better pay attention to history of epidemics. We need to be observant, informed, and prepared.


Nuclear catastrophe in the past in Michigan?

The oldest radiocarbon dating from Michigan archaeological digs prove that man was in the area 5350 years ago. And that may actually be a false reading. It actually be much older because a nuclear event may have happened that throws readings off. A very recent scientific discovery of a possible nuclear event (not man made) that happened several thousand years ago leading to the extinction of mankind and animals in Michigan and causing genetic mutations including the appearance of corn. Theory is that radioactive rays from a super nova explosion in space hit Michigan with radiation. (See Firestone, Richard TERRESTRIAL EVIDENCE OF A NUCLEAR CATASTROPHE IN PALEOINDIAN TIMES. by Richard B. Firestone, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and William Topping, Consultant, Baldwin, Michigan From: THE MAMMOTH TRUMPET (March 2001) http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/nuclear.html)


There have been several finds in our area such as huge Mastodon bones.

Other resent scientific research shows that our planet may have had multiple mass extinctions of much of its life caused by meteor impacts. (Brit)

As the glaciers melted plants returned and the animals moved further North. As the animals moved North ancient man who lived by hunting followed. At that time there was a land bridge between Asia and Alaska. It is believed that that is how man got to North America. These "Indians" are referred to by archaeologists as "Paleo-Indian People". It is believed that they were in Michigan about 12,000 years ago. They followed the herds of animals which they depended on for food and clothing. Later they were primitive hunters living in a boreal lake shore environment later with spruce forest cover. They made stone tools from chert. They also made tools from bone and antlers. We know this because large spear points have been found along with other primitive tools.

These people were followed by a "Late-Paleo-Indian Culture" who hunted deer, wolf, muskrat, black bear, turtles, birds, bison, and fish.


The Archaic Indian Culture existed in Michigan from 7000 to 2000 BC. Their culture adapted to life in a deciduous forest, but near lakes and rivers. They hunted, fished and gathered wild edible plants such as berries and nuts. They brewed vitamin rich teas from leaves of junipers, hemlock trees and other plants. There is some evidence that the climate was changing and they had to adapt. They learned to grind granite stone and polish it into tools with which they could make wooden tools, bowls and dugout canoes.


The Late Archaic Indian culture existed in Michigan approximately from 3000 BC to 2000 BC and had a much more diffuse economy. They used acorns, pines, beech, walnut, butternuts, hickory, and grapes. 'Their meat was mainly muskrats and fish. This people had contacts with others that mined copper in the Upper Peninsula, and they traded with others in what is now Mexico. What caused their sudden mysterious disappearance is unknown.

The Early Woodland period (1,000 to 300 B.C.) was a period of "firsts." According to the Michigan Historical Library who state “People planted the first gardens, made the first pottery, and built the first burial mounds.” Their rough pottery was used to cook and prepare food. So by this time they had mastered the use of fire. (MHL)


There is some notation in the historical literature about a primitive people who were much taller than other Indian tribes and had a different culture. They traded with other peoples as far south as Mexico. Little is known of them.



Around 300 B.C. to A.D. 500, called The Middle Woodland Period Hopewell peoples moved into Michigan from the south.* They built large, complex burial mounds which sometimes contained as many as 20 persons. The mounds were built over tombs in which as many as 20 people might be buried. Since they did not have shovels they carried dirt to the site in containers and piled it up. “Oftentimes, people were buried with interesting and unusual objects from far-away places. These objects included such things as copper beads from the shores of Lake Superior, cups made of shell from the Gulf of Mexico and fresh-water pearls from the Mississippi River valley.”* Some of above paraphrased from the State of Michigan historical website. Historians now feel mounds were the work of Indian peoples. (Willis F Dunbar 28 )

Over 1000 mounds have been recorded in Michigan. (Hinsdale) 1,068 (Willis F Dunbar ) Mound Road was named after a mound nearby. Many other Indian peoples, buried their dead in mounds. Sometimes they made these mounds in the outline shape of animals. Some mounds had enclosures in them which were like rooms. Others were large such one at the one at the mouth of the Clinton which had a circular enclosure that contained three acres. The Indians believed in an after life and buried with their dead things they thought they would use. Macomb County had at least 8 Indian villages, 4 burying grounds, 8 circular enclosures, and 1 rectangular enclosure. There were also at least 28 mounds. There actually were more mounds but they were already destroyed by pot hunters and farmers. Even stranger were the mysterious earth work forts and shaped earth designs with 18 inch tall inner and outer designer walls that are called “gardens” which took on geometric patterns. We still do not know what they were used for. See books by Hinsdale and Hubbard. The Hopewell used tobacco and carved beautiful stone pipes, often in the shapes of animals. (Hinsdale)


The Late Woodland Indians (A.D. 500 to 1,650) were the ones who first had a true agricultural base. They planted corn, squash, melons, and beans. They also were gatherers of berries and nuts, rice and other wild edibles and they hunted mainly hunted deer, elk and small mammals. They also were good fishers sometimes using fish nets. They tapped sugar maple trees for sap and made maple sugar.

The Indians that the Frenchmen found here were living in the new Stone Age. That is they had learned to use stone as tools such as hammers, axes and arrowheads. These Indians were in two large groups The Iroquois, and the Algonquians. The Warren area was part of the hunting-gathering grounds of the above peoples. Many times in the past this area was part of a no-man's land between warring groups. Many innocent people were needlessly slaughtered over the centuries. Many also died of injuries, disease, lack of food and exposure in winter. (Viola see works cited)


The Indians of Center Line

Approximately 100,000 Indians or about ten percent of the total Indian population north of Mexico lived in the Great lakes region in the 1600s. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 2). “The most numerous and influential were the Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi.” They called themselves the “Three Fires.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 2)

The Algonquians depended on gathering, fishing, hunting and limited agriculture. They lived in wigwams which were shelters made from bent saplings covered with bark or skins. For the most part they lived further north but our area was part of their range. (Viola)

The Iroquois were more advanced than the Algonquians. They lived in long shelters made of young trees stood in two rows bent toward each other tied in the center then covered with bark. Several families lived in each shelter. They often built a stockade around their villages for protection. They gathered, hunted, fished, grew corn, pumpkin and vegetables.

Our area appears to have been mainly inhabited by the Hurons also known as the Wyandottes who were from the 1600s on at war with other Iroquois especially with those to the South. The Clinton River was originally called the Huron River because of these Indians.

They had a village where Detroit is now. The name Huron comes from the French word for boar "hure" as the Hurons kept their black hair short and bristly like a boar's hair. They hunted deer, bear, muskrats, beaver, birds and fish. When the French arrived in the early seventeenth century, the Huron were at the height of their power. The Huron population varies, but as many as thirty thousand people lived in about twenty-five villages. Michigan History magazine stated “The Huron were sedentary, living in large villages with a high degree of community Raids from the Iroquoian tribes in New York destroyed the Huron. Survivors were adopted into other tribes or became refugees.” (Perkins)

The Michigan tribes were not highly organized. “Leadership in their classless society was based on an individual's hunting or fishing skill, physical prowess, warring abilities, or eloquence in speech. Leaders had no delegated power but maintained influence through acts of kindness, wisdom, generosity, and humility. Positions of leadership always were earned and could not be passed from generation to generation as a hereditary right.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 4) Marriage was between clans.

The Great Lakes Indians “believed that the most important social custom was reciprocity. This was basically the idea of doing something for someone, or giving them something, with the expectation that they would do something in return.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 6) “Reciprocity and sharing was the heart if Indian economic and social organization. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 7) Indians felt that the land belonged to everyone. Although there was communal property that everyone shared. Even the concept of personal property was limited. It was unsatisfactory for a person to have tow of something when another had none. They all lived in the wilderness and were subject to the weather and seasons. The Indians of Michigan had roles for each member of their society. Men did hunting, fishing, trading and defending. Women cooked, prepared clothing, did all of the camp duties and raised children. Children were taught respect and responsibility and were expected to learn everything about the culture. They were conditioned not to cry or make loud noises. The Indians had strong family ties because they were raised in an atmosphere of love and respect. Indians often did not punish their children at all.


The Indians lived in a land of relative abundance yet groups often starved in the winter. And how does one explain the ongoing tribal wars? It appears that just as the grass often appears greener on the other side of the fence the hunting grounds of other tribes looked better. Then young men seem to at times have the urge to fight. Most of the Indians were young. There was very high infant mortality. The Indians for the most part were very superstitious. They were loving within their family but extremely vicious and savage in war.

The Iroquois slaughtered the Huron Indians who had lived in southern Michigan. This forced other tribes to move further west. Even French missionaries suffered torture and death. For example father Jean de Breboeuf a peaceful man suffered extremely horrible torture needlessly. “The Iroquois sling red-hot tomahawks over his neck and fastened a bark belt around his wast and ignited it. When the priest continued to pray, his lips and tongue were cut off. He was then scalped while still living, and after his death his heart was cut out and devoured in honor of his bravery. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 23)

There were many battles fought here. Hundreds of arrowheads and other weapons were found. Not all for hunting animals. From the stories and legends of the Indians it has been discovered that there was a lot of warfare between tribes. And this was before white man came here. Then looking at the record of how the Indians treated others and treated their captives demonstrated how cruel they could be. They often tortured captives and took slaves. Scalping was practiced before white man entered but when white men gave the Indians scalping knives and paid them to bring back scalps they excelled at this butchery. They even dug up newly killed persons and scalped them to sell the scalps for goods and fire water. Thousands were killed and scalped including women and children. When archaeologist dug up burial sites in Macomb County it became obvious a lot of people died in cruel warfare. We also know that the Indians were even cruel to child captors. See the attached statement by Governor Cass.


Purity

The Air was pure, The Water was pure and the land was pure The St Clair River was so clear one could see the bottom. The same was true of Lake St Clair and the Detroit River in the 1700 and early 1800s. The same was true of all of the rivers and streams in our area. Lake St Clair had clear blue water. (Silas Farmer p4) The well water was pure except for natural gas. The fish that were caught were wholesome. Now the fish have poison in them and the lakes and rivers are sewers. The land in Macomb County is poisoned in several places. There are places in Macomb County with deadly chemicals under where people live and children play. One big toxic site is in East Pointe. Families are now living on these sites which are many times more toxic than safely allowable for humans to live on. Yet to show you how ignorant many present day people are they are still living there putting their children at risk because they are ignorant of current issues. They can tell you who won American idol or an oscar but news reports of the tests on their properties they have ignored. Schofield School was built on a Detroit dump. The Detroit area had many wind and water powered mills. Some were used to pump water like in Center Line and some were to grind grain. In 1830 there was a mill at Gratiot and Jefferson.


Indian Life

Indians lived in families. Most of their daily activities centered on getting food clothing and shelter. The men hunted and or farmed and the women and children prepared the food and did most of the other tasks. In Michigan hunting gathering and fishing provided them more food than farming. They were skilled at hunting and fishing. They knew which plants were good for food and which for medicine.

Marriage was for survival not love at ages 12-15 for the girls and 15-20 for the men. The relatives chose the partners. The boy’s family usually gave presents to the bride’s family. The young couple then moved in with relatives. This was called extended family. Everyone shared the daily work and raising of children. If the woman died her family would probably be expected to give her husband another unmarried daughter to replace her. Most Indian families were small because many babies died young. Indian children did not go to school they helped with the work thereby learning how things were done. To be recognized as a man the teenage boy usually had to prove that he could live along in the wilderness. Family groups were often larger than the extended familiar. Families with a common ancestor were part of a clan. Members of the clan helped each other. When an Indian was, hungry s/he just went to the local wilderness for food. A pointed stick would spear fish and the bow provided venison. The wilderness provided many wild plants for food some of which were really good to eat such as wild berries and nuts Maple sap was sweet and could be used to make maple sugar. Tea was made from sassafras and wintergreen. The oak tree provided acorns from which flour was made. Meat was preserved by drying it. Trail snacks were made from dried foods such as pemmican which consisted of dried meats grease and berries. Most North American animals are edible so if a deer wasn’t found there were rabbits, squirrels possums raccoon, beaver etc. The main crops were corn, beans and squash. Wild rice grows in places. There was wild honey in the woods and maple sugar from sugar maples.

Clothing consisted of all natural materials such as animal skins which had been tanned. For men deerskin shirts leggings and breech cloths were most common and for woman simple aprons or skirts. Bird feathers were often used for decoration. The beads and wampum came mostly from trading. Wampum consists of beads of polished shells strung in strands, belts, or sashes and used Indians as money, ceremonial pledges, and ornaments.

Jesuit missionaries who came to live among the Indians reported to their superiors in France. These reports are noted in “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents by R. G. Thwaites (ed).” Many of the missionaries stated that “the Indians were handsome and well-proportioned, and that their health and stamina were better then that of the Europeans, and that their senses were highly developed. The liberality and hospitality of the natives also received frequent comment. Parental love was carried so far that children were not disciplined. They reported. Among the characteristics of Indian life that shocked the Jesuits were sexual immorality, promiscuity, and lewdness. The Indian's lack of cleanliness, his gluttony, and his barbarity also were noted and condemned by the Jesuits. On the other hand, the stoicism of the natives and their capacity for suffering pain without wincing often excited the admiration of the missionaries. In his natural state the Indian seemed to be capable at once of high nobility and abysmal depravity.” (J. H. Kennedy, Jesuit and Savage in New France p 131 quoted by Willis F Dunbar 37)


Shelters consisted of dome shaped huts made of saplings fixed into the ground bent over and tied covered with barks, wood and skins. (Willis F Dunbar 29) Others made large rectangular dwellings called long houses which several families shared. Their tools consisted of shaped stones, clubs, spears, bows, arrows, hooks, traps nets, chemicals and hand tools of bone or shell. Often the villages had tall stake fences around them called palisades for protection against enemies. And at night there was howling of the wolves outside the palisade.


Savages then and now

Wars occurred frequently. “War was a common occurrence in Indian life.” “The Indians were often cruel in inflicting torture upon their captives.” “Scalps were sometimes collected as trophies of war.” (Willis F Dunbar 33) Indians not only killed and tortured even child captives but they often ate them. Thousands of settlers were cruely tortured, killed and scalped. The use of the word savage is certainly fitting for these low lifes. Savage meaning: lacking the restraints normal to civilized human beings also uncivilized fierce, ferocious criminal malicious, fierce, barbarous, wild, uncultivated, ignorant. We have a bunch of criminals today that fit this description. They injure, torture and sometimes kill innocent animals and people. Some walk our streets. Many are found in Detroit the Murder Capital.

General Cass related an experience of James May “During the American Revolutionary war, when the Indian war-parties approached Detroit, they always gave the war and death whoops, so that the inhabitants, who were acquainted with their customs, knew the number of scalps they had brought and of prisoners they had taken...Soon after I arrived in Detroit, the great war party which had captured Ruddle's Station in Kentucky, returned from that expedition. Hearing the usual signals of success, I walked out of town and soon met the party. The squaws and young Indians had ranged themselves on the side of the road, with sticks and clubs, and were whipping the prisoners with great severity. Among these were two young girls, thirteen or fourteen years old who escaped from the party and ran for protection to me and to a naval officer. I found the naval officer, who was with me the preceding day, already there.” Later both he and the naval officer were severely reprimanded for helping the poor children. Those poor children had probably witnessed their parents being killed and scalped and were cruelly and severely being whipped and beaten just because they were captives. (Farmer p262) If one has any doubt about the reason Indians were referred to as savages this should make it very clear. Even the squaws and Indian children were participating in this totally unnecessary cruelty.

“William McVey related the following observation to Judge Witherell which occurred Sept 15, 1814. “David and William Burbank and myself were sitting down [near the fort] Mr McMillan and Archy passed us. We spoke to them about some apples they were eating. They passed on towards some cows that were feeding” nearby ...When they approached within gunshot of some bushes we saw three of four guns fired, and Mr McMillan fall. The Indians instantly dashed upon him and took off his scalp. Archy, on seeing that his father was killed, turned and ran towards us with all the speed that his little legs could supply. A savage on horseback pursued him...The savage sprang from his horse, seized the boy and dragged him off to the woods,” (farmer 285)

“After the massacre at the Raisin, the few who were judged able to march were taken to Malden and Detroit, but when any of them gave out they were tomahawked without mercy. Those who could scarcely walk on account of wounded and bleeding feet were compelled to dance on the frozen ground for the amusement of the savages.” (Farmer 280)

American Scalps were paraded daily thru Detroit. In 1790 scalps of American soldiers were paraded daily thru the streets of Detroit accompanied by the demoniac scalp-yells of the warriors who had taken them. (Farmer p265)

Historian Wesley Arnold adds that the word savages also includes the French, British, Germans, Spanish, Dutch and Americans who participated in cruel and savage acts against peaceful men women and children back then and by others even in the 21st century. Truthfully, historically this is the human story, wars, killing, cruelty, on and on. This is why mankind needs a code of conduct agreed on universally and enforced universally. And it may actually happen in the lifetime of my grandchildren when intelligent machines may be given the power to enforce disarmament and prevent wars. Of course that remains to be seen.


In the late 1500’s five tribes the Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Seneca formed the Iroquois nation under Chief Hiawatha. Indians believed in spirits. Complicated ceremonies were common. They also wore ugly masks during disease curing rituals. (Viola and National Geographic)


Bloody Invasions

The Hurons told many tales of invasions by tribes from the North such as the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatomies. Many of them were slaughtered by the other Iroquois during the cruel Indian wars from 1600-1820. The French set the Algonquians and Hurons against the English and Iroquois. The English set the Iroquois against the French, Americans and Hurons. The French explorer Champlain around 1612 and a company of Frenchmen while cultivating friendship with Algonquin tribes and the Huron Indians who lived in the vicinity of Quebec accompanied these Indians on a war party against their dreaded enemies the Iroquois. “The fire arms used by the French in the ensuing struggle threw the Iroquois into panic-stricken flight and incurred their lasting enmity. (Willis F Dunbar 49) This resulted in the Iroquois fighting the French and their Indian allies severely for the next 200 years. The Iroquois later slaughtered the Hurons and the few survivors fled Michigan. Then around 1650 the Iroquois attacked other tribes. “Lower Michigan was almost entirely depopulated. (Willis F Dunbar 53) “The Lower Peninsula of Michigan continued for many years to be a kind of no man's land between the fierce Iroquois warriors of the East and the tribes that inhabited what is now Wisconsin and Upper Michigan. (Willis F Dunbar 64) About 1689 St Lawrence settlements were repeatedly raided, “and on one of these forays the bloodthirsty Iroquois slaughtered two hundred people in the little village of La Chine.” (Willis F Dunbar 77)


The Dutch furnished muskets and the English furnished scalping knives, guns and bought scalps. Thousands of innocent settlers were killed as well as neutral Indians. Some of those killed may well have been some of the first settlers in this area. The area of Center Line was covered with thick forest of Oak, Beech, Maple, Black Walnut, Pine and other trees. Bear Creek and Red Run had pure water then. However it may have been named Red Run because occasions of the blood in the water resulting from children and families who lived on the banks of this creek being needlessly butchered by killers. This happened because there was no “Rule of Law”, rather it was rule of brute force.



Explorers found that Warren and Center Line were covered with thick forests and damp areas. Parts of the year they were damp and other times they were dry.


If all of the above time was on a regular clock face, the last fraction of the last second would be when mankind appeared in Michigan several thousand years ago. I rediscovered a mound that was built by them while working on hiking merit badge as a scout. It was taller than I was and pyramid shaped but the top was round probably from erosion. American Indians spoke hundreds of different languages. There were countless tribes over time, most of which are unknown.. This area was a hunting ground and home for thousands of years, long before our direct ancestors came over on boats from Europe. The Indians did not have written laws. Tribes had traditions they sometimes followed but varied from them at the whim of the ruling chief or warrior. Most of the time they were kind. Some prepared for war. Some practiced war. They had to in order to survive against other war-like people. They practiced slavery and extreme cruelty at times including torture. On the other hand they often lived in harmony with others and with nature. The Indians have interesting traditions. They got to know nature by living in it and using it. They got to know the local plants and what they were good for. Some like cattails were good for many things such as food, mats, baskets, bedding, baby diapers, and fire starters. These peoples did not write or read. They kept their history as oral traditions in the form of stories told at campfires. Their dances tell stories. Most of our ancestors also were in tribes and lived like the Indians did. There are interesting books about their way of life in the Library. You can still visit a real Indian pow-wow, see their dances and talk to real Indians. For more information see South Eastern Michigan Indians 26641 Lawrence Street Center Line, Michigan 48015 Phone: (810) 756-1350 E-mail: semii@mail.com POW WOWS are held almost year round.


What did we learn from the Indians?

First we learned from them where things were like the lakes, streams and other resources. Then we learned the use of corn, potatoes, tobacco, squash, beans, pumpkins, melons, maple sap, maple sugar, tobacco and uses for many other native plants. Corn was unknown to Europeans and was a lifesaver food crop as wheat did not do well until after the ground had been tilled several times. We learned how to make birch bark canoes, shelters, hunting and fishing techniques and that people can live off of the land without modern conveniences. We learned that primitive man can be very intelligent very kind, or very cruel. They could also do things we couldn’t like make fires by twirling a stick and going for days on next to no food. The Indians also introduced Europeans to their sacred plant tobacco.


What did the Indians learn from the White Man?

They learned to use European tools, clothes and culture. They learned that the white man would take over their land by moving in, making treaties with promises then breaking those promises. The Indians were primitive people with no concept of land ownership. Michigan belonged to everyone and each was to take from it only what they needed. The land belonged to all and was for the use of all. Before the white man came all tribes were virtually self-reliant. (Willis F Dunbar 31) The Indians were promised lands by sacred treaty then the white man would come in with armies and modern weapons and kill or remove the Indians from the land that was already by law given to the Indians. And Europeans brought diseases such as measles, smallpox and tuberculosis to which the Indians had no resistance at all, So thousands died

Another quirk was that the Indians for the most part adopted and used European items. They liked metal tools because they were more efficient. Metal pots were superior than earthen pots. Guns were more effective for hunting and killing enemies. Non Indian clothing and blankets were better and more comfortable. The Indians adopted white man's items and tools and within a generation seemed to forget how to be self sufficient. By the mid 1700s Michigan Indians were almost dependent upon Europeans trade goods. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 8) By the 1700s most Indian bands were more driven to get furs than to hunt or raise crops for their own families. The introduction of whiskey to Indian culture resulted in many Indians selling personal and family possessions and neglecting getting food for themselves and their families. That and with the white-induced diseases accounted for gradual Indian population decline to around 8,000 by 1900. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 9) Of course some of this was due to warfare. The Indians learned that the white man was not looking out for there welfare rather was cheating them in every way possible. “The worse curse was the white-man's fire-water. The Indians were utterly unable to control their desire for rum, brandy, or whiskey once they had had a taste of it, and untold numbers were completely debauched by its use. The Indians became pawns in the white-man's wars.” (Willis F Dunbar 36) And the Indians were denied both moral and legal justice. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 11)


To the early pioneers the Indians were mostly deadly enemy. Some Indians such as the Delawares were Christians and were very friendly and kind. Others like the roving bands of paid scalpers hired by the English would butcher an entire family just for the scalps. There was much needless violence practiced by the English, French, American settlers and Indians. We must learn that there are better ways to settle disputes than brute force.


Who were the first Europeans in the area?

We simply have no records of the Vikings coming here although they preceded Columbus to America. Leif Ericson (c. 970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland), nearly five hundred years before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is believed that Leif was born in Iceland, the son of Erik Thorvaldsson known as Erik the Red. (Wikipedia)

An account published in Paris in 1632 indicates that Samuel de Champlain, founder of Canada sent Etienne Brule west from Georgian Bay on lake Huron. In 1634 Jean Nicolet was sent by Champlain to explore down into Lake Michigan. Following this fur traders and adventurers explored the Michigan region. They made friends with the Indians by giving them gifts. They traveled far and wide in Michigan and may have even explored the Huron River (later became the Clinton). But they did not publish their notes if they even took any because this was secret state business. This was New France and their job was to obtain furs. It is almost certain that Cadillac was not the first European in the area but no records have come to light with any actual names. What is important is that they respected the Indians and found a way to trade with them peacefully. They learned the languages and often married into the culture.

The Indians were living in the stone age which required intensive laborious work to hunt and just live. The Indians began acquiring metal tools, clothes, blankets and learning the ways of the Europeans. The Indians realized that a metal knife required a lot less work to use than a stone one. Soon the Indians were traded guns which were much more effective for hunting and against enemies. The Indians also learned to beg, bargain and trade. They were told that settlers would take their lands and force them out. The Indians discovered this was true from other tribes further east who had been displaced. So who the actual first foreigners were doesn't matter. The Europeans who counted were the French who had great influence on the Indians and their culture. The French were there to make money and to save souls. Several French missionaries were sent to Michigan. French explorers explored Michigan to an extent that when La salle left Michigan for the last time in 1683 the French were well acquainted with most of Michigan. (Willis F Dunbar 71)


Our area was abounding in wildlife.

Our area was also home to some ancient animals such as the American mastodon, saber toothed cats, short legged rhinoceros, long horned bison, giant ground sloth, and an early camel all millions of years ago. On July 24, 1701, Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac and his command of about one hundred men, which included his nine-year-old son Antoine, landed at the foot of a thirty-foot cliff along the Detroit River. Cadillac built here Fort Pontchartrain du De Troit (the straits). This later became the city of Detroit. Madame Cadillac, several months later, traveled one thousand miles by canoe to join her husband, becoming the first European woman in Michigan. Cadillac left Detroit in 1710. The Michigan Historical library states that his settlement had become home to several thousand Native Americans, but only a handful of French Canadians.


What was the area like in 1701? What did Cadillac find?

In 1701 Cadillac wrote that there were forests of full grown trees or walnut, white oak, red oak, ash, pine, whitewood, cottonwood, straight as arrows with no knots and without branches except at the very top. ”Under these broad walks one sees hundreds of timid deer and faun, also the squirrel bounding in his eagerness to collect the apples and plums with which the earth is covered. Here the cautious turkey calls and conducts her numerous brood to gather the grapes.” Golden pheasants, the quail, partridge, woodcock, and numerous doves swarm in the woods and in the country which is dotted with thickets.” “The fish here are nourished and bathed by living water of crystal clearness and their great abundance renders them none the less delicious.” He writes of the prodigious courageous Eagle, “Swans are so numerous that one would take for lilies the reeds in which they are crowded together. Luxuriant grass which fatten woolly buffaloes of magnificent size. Silas Farmer also states that other early accounts tell of elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, otters, lynxes, wildcats, beavers, musk-rats, meadow larks, bobolinks, robins, and humming birds. “so numerous and large, indeed, were the wild bisons, that the making of garments from their wool was seriously considered.” In 1824 myriads of wild pigeons made their roosts in the forests of the country. They were so numerous that hundreds could easily be killed with a walking stick. (Silas Farmer p11)


Michigan is indeed a water wonder land with the most fresh water in the world.

French Rule The arrival of the Europeans

In the 1600’s Europeans were venturing into Michigan. At first most were from France but also from other countries. They discovered a wilderness covered with huge trees, white pines over five feet in diameter at the base and 200 feet tall, abundant wildlife such as beaver, lakes and streams with fish. 1600-1668 French missionaries and fur traders ventured into upper Michigan especially the area of Sault Ste Marie. In 1668, the legendary Jesuit missionary and explorer Fr. Jacques Marquette named this settlement Sault Ste. Marie, the first “city” in the Great Lakes region. According to Michigan History magazine (http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/ kids/pdfs/guide1.pdf) When the French arrived in the upper Great Lakes in the mid-seventeenth century, they discovered nine Indian tribes that totaled an estimated 100,000 people. The largest was the Huron, which lived in the region between Lakes Erie, Ontario and Huron. Tribes living in present-day Michigan included the Ojibway, the Odawa and the Potawatomi. Other tribes living in the area included the Menominee, the Sac (also Sauk), the Fox, the Winnabago and the Miami.” They shared three beliefs: 1) Spirits were more powerful than men; 2) Nature—the land, animals and plants—belonged to everyone; and 3) No one had the right to run another person’s life. Everyone living in an Indian village worked.” “Michigan Indians were not as warlike as other Native Americans. When they did fight, it was because another group had moved too close to their territory. They also fought to avenge a wrong done to one of them by someone from another village or tribe.” The French exploited the area for furs. The French gave the Indians beads, blankets, tomahawks, copper kettles, and guns. (Silas Farmer 227)


The French did everything they could to settle Canada. Under Jean Talon the “Great Intendant” which was the title for the manager of the area, France emptied its prisons, poor houses and orphanages of people and sent them to Canada. They they encouraged the new settlers to marry and have large families. Talon also introduced new crops such as flax and hemp and imported quality livestock. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 25)

In 1689 the Iroquois attacked the village of La Chine and massacred 200 French villagers. The King of France sent in troops but European troops were unskilled in fighting Indians. Then the French sent voyagers and Indians to attack English settlements. In one attack against English settlers at Schenectady sixty residents perished. One of the residents who escaped stated later “the cruelties committed at said place no person can write not tongue express; ye women big with child ripped up and ye children alive thrown into ye flames, and their heads dashed in pieces against doors and windows.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 35) These needless cruel attacks would spread later to settlers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana and further south.

Cadillac had settled in in Detroit in 1701. He rented land to Frenchmen for money. He turned the whole area into a wealth building machine for himself. He encouraged Indians to camp near the fort and trade there. During trading season as many as 5,000 Indians and hundreds of coureurs de bois met in Detoit. Cadillac made a small fortune from this fur trade. (Willis F Dunbar 80) Because the Jesuits were trying to Christianize the Indians they were not in favor of killing, scalping and moral debauchery caused by fire water. To celebrate an Ottawa and Potawatomi foray into the Saginaw region against Iroquois hunters, which netted thirty scalps and as many prisoners, Cadillac furnished the victorious Indians, on their return, with enough brandy so that two hundred of them staged an all-night orgy. (Willis F Dunbar 80) Cadillac commanded Detroit for nine years. He made many enemies and extracted the last penny possible from the settlers. Even his boss Count Pontchartrain reprimanded him and told him that he was too greedy. (Willis F Dunbar 85) Cadillac had hoped to make a permanent settlement that would grow in population thru intermarriage with Indians. He was convinced that this “would assure Indian loyalty and friendship as well.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 37) He might have succeeded if he weren't so greedy and obnoxious which got him transferred to Mobile in 1710.

In 1706 a priest was shot by an Ottawa Indian. The population of Detroit remained fairly small. In 1708 it only has 63 permanent residents ,200 acres in cultivation.

It had only a dozen assorted cattle and a “single forlorn horse.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 38) The French settlers were very laid back and young French men preferred the quick profits of the fur trade to hard toil of humble farmers. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 38) The big picture of course was that the French preferred to preserve the wilderness for the fur trade rather than make big settlements. So by 1750 the French even though they claimed all of Canada only had about 50,000 population compared to the English holdings to the south east with a population of 1.5 million. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 39)

French Commandants

1701 – 1704 M Antione de la Mothe Cadillac

1704 - 1706 Sieur Alphonse de Tonty

1706, January to August Sieur de Bourgmont

1706 august to summer of 1711 M Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac

1711 to June 1712 M Joseph Guyon du Buisson

1712 June to 1714 Francois Daupin, Sieur de la Forest

1714 Nov 12 to 1717 Lieutenant Jacques Chas Sabrevois

1717 M Louis de la Poste, Sieur de Louvigny

1717 July 3 to 1720 M Henri Tonty, younger brother of Alphonse

1720 M Charles Joseph, Sieur de Noyelle

1720 to November 10, 1727 (when he died) Sieur Alphonse de Tony

1727 December 19 to M le Chevalier de Lepermouche

1728 M Jean Baptiste Deschaillons de St Ours

1728 M Charles Joseph, Sieur de Noyelle

1728 to June 10, 1734 M de Boishebert

1734 June 10 to Hugues Jacques Pean Sieur de Livandiere

1734-1738 Lieutenant Jacques Charles Sabrevois

1738-1741 M Charles Joseph Sieur de Noyelle

1741, July 28, to 1742, Pierre Poyen de Noyan

1742-1743 Pierre de Celeron, Sieur de Blainville

1743-1747 M Joseph Lemoyne, Chevalier de Longueuil

1749- Lieutenant Jacques Charles Sabrevois

1751, February 15, to March 19, 1754, Pierre de Celeron, Sieur de Blainville

1754 to May 25, 1758 M Jacques d'Anon, sieur de Muy. Died at Detroit

1758 – 1760 Captain Francois Marie Picote de Bellestre (Silas Farmer 227)


The Fur Trade

since Europe was largely depleted of fur bearing animals there was a big demand for furs in Europe. The pelts that were shipped to Europe included Beaver, bear, elk, deer, martin, raccoon, mink, muskrat, opossum, lynx, wolf, and fox. (Willis F Dunbar 90) The French fur traders were adventurous young men who lived among the Indians and took Indian wives. It is estimated that there were at least 800 of them. Others were voyageurs who were colorful characters who paddled hundreds of miles up swift streams, carrying canoes on their backs singing as they went. (Willis F Dunbar 92) They traded bright-colored beads, cloth, shawls, handkerchiefs, ribbons, sleigh bells, knives, jew's harps, shot, powder, tobacco, blankets, and brandy. They often cheated the Indians. (Willis F Dunbar 92) They ate corn boiled in strong lye, the hulls removed, ant the kernels washed and dried and bear or other meat and pork or fat. (Willis F Dunbar 92)



By 1710 nearly 6000 Indians from many tribes were visiting near the area of the Fort at Detroit trying to get the French to give them things. This meant that they were hunting in Center Line . In the past the French had given lots of gifts to the Indians. But the King of France had ordered an end to buying furs and an end to the giving of gifts. This angered the Indians and led to the murders of many French fur traders. Soon the tribes were fighting amongst themselves for territory. In 1712 allied Indians massacred about 1000 Fox Indians.

1745 Parties You don’t want to go to this party!


Into this wonderful land of beauty and peace, again as in countless times before, came strangers and killed the peaceful settlers. Men, women and children were needlessly massacred. Why?

Silas points out that as early as 1745 the French outfitted war excursion parties. These killed scalped, tortured any settler or anyone that they did not like. They also took many women and children as slaves.

I quote Silas “The fact is undoubted and indisputable that at Detroit and other posts under both French and English rule, the Indians received goods in payment for human scalps as regularly as for coon and muskrat skins.” (Farmer p232)

On August 31, 1747 a settler named Martineau wandered a little to far from the fort and was scalped by four Indians.(Farmer 232)


George Washington

Colonel George Washington in 1753 on his return trip from interviewing the French commandant was himself narrowly escaped being massacred by the Indians. (Farmer p232)

Cannibals

French residents of Detroit in 1756 stated that Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle. (Farmer p 322) History records many incidents of this.

In November of 1757 a party of three hundred Canadians and Indians fell upon the German settlers killed forty took one hundred and fifty captives and carried off an immense quantity of provisions and livestock. (Farmer p 233)

During French rule four kings and three regents exercised authority over Center Line Henry IV Mary de Medici, Louis XIII, Anne, Louis XIV, Louis XV. They wanted power wealth and comfort for themselves. They did not care about our ancestors or their subjects.


The Language Problem

Back in the past there were over 10,000 languages. Now there are still over a thousand languages spoken around the world and English is understood by only about ten percent of all humans.

We need an “auxiliary international vocabulary” for use between speakers of different languages.

Humans need to understand each other especially in emergencies. If you look at any world almanac’s history section you will see that mankind’s history is filled with thousands of years of senseless unnecessary violence that continues into today. Today we still have Americans and thousands of other humans dying around the world in senseless and needless violence often set off by communication failure. This failure is due to not being able to understand the hundreds of languages spoken in the world and due to the absurd notion that most people in the world are going to learn English. In fact most people in the world don’t have time to learn English with all of its irregularities and ambiguous words, and they certainly will not learn it in our lifetime. So we need an easy to learn international vocabulary. There is one which has been proved successful called Esperanto. (No it is not Spanish, rather an international easy to learn vocabulary. See link “International Vocabulary” on the website macombhistory.us

French settlers

There were many French settlers around Detroit and northward mostly along the banks of the Detroit River and lake St Clair. They had very long narrow farms that touched on the water’s edge. They were mostly a happy peaceful lot. Reports from Detroit were that it was a fairly happy place where almost everyone were friends. Any trouble was dealt with quickly by the military stationed there. The French settler’s friendliness to the Indians probably saved their lives later. But the Indians continually begged for things.

Between 1689 and 1763 France and Great Britain fought four wars. The French and Indian War went from 1754-1760 was really the struggle between the French and the British for domination of North America. The British defeated the French and took control of Canada, Michigan and the fur trade. About 160 years of French rule came to an end in 1760.


The Bloody British

By 1750 the British colonies had 1.5 million people compared with Canada with 50,000. In 1755 British General Braddock with1,500 soldiers began to attack the French and their Indian allies. The general “refused to heed the advice of the colonial military men, whom he considered untutored in the art of war.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 40) The general had 100 miles to go thru the woods so he decided to build a road. This process was noisy and slow and alerted the enemy who snuck up on his tires soldiers at dawn and killed Braddock and 977 of his soldiers.

British Rule began in Michigan on November 29 1760 when British Major Robert Rogers and his command arrived at Detroit. At that time there were 300 houses and 2,000 inhabitants. The English were also after furs and wanted to own North America.

The British did not treat the Indians as well as the French did. They did not give out as many gifts and they set the Indian tribes against each other and against American settlers. The Indians were duped by Europeans into killing one another and killing Europeans and later killing American settlers. In general the Indians were cheated out of their lands, displaced sometimes murdered by Europeans and Americans and sometimes they retaliated. A few of their descendants still live in Macomb County.

The Bloody British used all the means they could to get the Indians to kill settlers. (Farmer 233, 261) The British led raiding parties of Indians to kill settlers and then paid them for the scalps.

The British flag flew over Michigan for thirty-six years from 1760-1796 and off an on until after the war of 1812 and it took a few years after that. for all of the sympathizers to clear out. Then the British still had major control over some Indians which caused some settlers to be killed up to 1830. So if one is counting years that the British had major influence in the Michigan area the total would probably be around seventy years of bloody British sponsored killings.

English Commanding Officers

1760 Major Robert Rogers

1760 to 1763 Major Donald Campbell

1763 to August 31, 1764 Major Henry Gladwin

1764 Colonel John Bradstreet

1765 Colonel John Campbell

1766, Aug 26 Major Robert Bayard

1767-1769 Captain George Turnbull

1770 June 2, to September, Major T Bruce

1770, September, to January 8, 1772 James Stephenson

1772 Major Etherington

1772-1774 Major Henry Bassett

1774 Major R B Lernoult

1775 Captain Montpasant

1775 Major Arent Schuyler De Peyster

1776 Captain Lord

1778 December, to October, 1779 Major Richard Beringer Lernoult

1779, October, to June 1, 1784, Major Arent Schuyler De Peyster

Note Henry Hamilton the hair buyer was the British Lieutenant Governor of Detroit in 1779 This position was higher than simply the post commander.

1784, June 1, to Major William Ancram

1785, June, Captain Bennet

1786, June, Major R Matthews

1787, Major Wiseman

1789, September 2, Major Patrick Murray

1790, November 14, Major D W Smith

1791 Colonel England

1791, Major John Smith, of Fifth Regiment

1792, Major Claus

1792, October 24, Colonel Richard England

1793, March, to 1796, Colonel Richard England of Twenty-fourth Regiment

1793, Captain William Doyle (Silas Farmer p 227)

The above men were actually absolute dictators. De Peyster hanged a woman. Hit a person with his cane and had a person trampled. In 1763 (Farmer 171) Hamilton hanged people in 1776.


We in our time have rule by law. They had rule by brute force.

When word of the American Revolution came in most of the French settlers were more sympathetic to the Americans than to the British. The British did not want American settlers coming into the area so they had them killed.


To discourage settlers, rumors were spread that the Center Line area was as an impassable swamp.

The British gave bands of Indians guns, gun powder, tomahawks and scalping knives. The British actually bought scalps and led raiding parties against settlers, and any Indian family not aligned with them. Again it was rule by brute force rather than rule by law. Hundreds of Michigan settlers and Indians were brutally tortured and scalped including children. Settlers in the Macomb county area did not escape this terrible fate.

Pontiac’s rebellion

In late April 1763 Ottawa war chief Pontiac called a grand council of the tribes in the vicinity of Detroit and urged them to join him in an attack upon the British fort. Pontiac proposed a plan to capture Fort Detroit. On the morning of May 7, fifty warriors accompanied him to the fort, each carrying a concealed tomahawk or knife. Pontiac carried a green-and-white wampum belt (shells embroidered into a belt). Once inside the fort, he would signal the attack by turning the belt over. The fort’s commander, Major Henry Gladwin, had learned of the plan and Pontiac’s followers found themselves outnumbered by the British redcoats, who were armed and ready. Pontiac and his men left the fort. The next day the Indians returned and asked to be allowed into the fort. Gladwin refused. Pontiac then placed Detroit under siege. Detroit’s defenders worried about flaming arrows and suffered a constant shortage of supplies, yet, the Indians failed to close Gladwin’s water link to the east and force the fort’s surrender. Several other British forts fell. If there were any American settlers in Center Line they were probably butchered. But by fall, Pontiac’s warriors needed to return to their families and the siege ended.

An Indian woman saved the fort at Detroit. She was a member of Pontiac’s tribe and noticed that warriors had obtained files to cut down their gun barrels to make concealed weapons. She found out that they were going to massacre the people in the fort. So she went to see the fort commander and informed him of the plot. Pontiac found out about it and repeatedly beat her to near death.

Although there was no fighting in Michigan during the American Revolution except for the killing of settlers, Detroit was the center of British power in the west. Word of the American Revolution reached the frontier of which the Detroit area was a part. The British told the Indians that the American settlers would be taking their land. The British gave bands of Indians guns, powder, tomahawks and scalping knives. Raids on American settlements in the east were organized from Detroit. Thousands of American settlers died because of the raiders.

On May 9 1763 without provocation an old woman and her two sons were murdered and scalped. On Belle Isle a settler by the name of Mr Fisher and his wife were also murdered and their two children taken never to be seen again. This happened where the Scott memorial is now n Belle Isle. Over 100 English traders were murdered that summer. The Indians also cruelly tortured many people. (Ferris Lewis p51)


The Bloody Red Run?

Legend is that the Red Run River got its name from the red color of the water from the butchery of Chief Pontiac's warriors killing others at the banks of the river. Still others claim color was from cranberries. Truth is we don't know.


Hamilton the Hair Buyer

The British Governor of Detroit became known as "Hamilton the Hair Buyer" because he bought scalps. Englishmen sometimes led the Indians on raids on American settlers. Ferris Lewis in his book My State and Its Story states "So murderous were these raids that the year 1777 is known in American History as the year of the three bloody sevens. Mutilated bodies with scalps gone, smoldering ashes of what was once a settler's cabin on the frontier, tales of horror and massacre; these marked the trail of the Indian raiders. Hundreds of settlers thus perished before the Indians' guns and tomahawks." Many innocent people were also cruelly tortured. Why did the Indians gather scalps? Who paid them for the scalps and provided this primitive people with scalping knives? (Ferris Lewis p 57)

The Treaty of Paris in 1783, obligated the British leave Detroit it took them thirteen years and some naval battle losses before they left. British rule which began in 1760 ended by 1815. They left a bloody 55 year legacy. They earned the title Bloody British.

There were small bands of Indians that lived just outside of the fort at Detroit from 1701 -1820. For the most part they were friendly. But hey begged a lot.

The following is paraphrased from an article on the Hair Buyer which does not quote the source appears at http://www.essortment.com/all/henryhamilton_rbxy.htm

Henry Hamilton was he British Lieutenant Governor of Detroit in 1777 who was widely known on the frontier as the hair Buyer. He was the power behind deadly Indian raids to American settlements. He bought American scalps from these raids.


The British had captured Vincennes which was at that time more or less the capital of the region. George Rogers Clark felt that his small force of Kentucky riflemen was no match against the British unless he could mount a surprise attack. In the middle of winter he and his men set out on February 6 to go overland. Clark's men struggled, waded thru wet mud, forded wet areas where they had to break the ice. They had insufficient clothing and here half starving. Finally they achieved a surprise attack and after a struggle Hamilton surrendered February 25, 1779\. During negotiations, for Hamilton's surrender Clark's men intercepted a war party on it’s way to Hamilton to present American scalps for payment. The Indians were in possession of scalps. They were tied to a fence and killed in view of the British defenders of the fort. Hamilton surrendered. Clark immediately had Hamilton clamped in irons. There was great hatred for Hamilton. Even Thomas Jefferson, ordered him shackled in irons and thrown into a dungeon. The net effect was to greatly weaken the British power and their influence over the Indians. To weaken the Indians further Clark sent agents to Indian tribes causing several tribes to drop hostilities.

Daniel Boone was held by Hamilton in Detroit he was treated with unusual courtesy.

When Hamilton was imprisoned by Jefferson, Boone made a visit to see him.

In 1781 Hamilton was released in a prisoner exchange. and became Governor of Quebec and later Governor of Bermuda.


As the Indians gradually became aware that the French and British were growing weaker and that the Americans were growing stronger they continued to fight. General Josiah Harnar moved so slowly that the Indians easily could keep track of him and when the time was right attack. In October 1790 a detachment was ambushed and 183 men killed. In 1791 a force of 3,000 men under command of Governor St Clair set out from Fort Washington. When his tired army reached the Maumee River and pitched their tents for the night they did not post adequate guards. The camp was quietly surrounded, then furiously attacked. Leaving 630 dead and 383 wounded behind. After this victory the Indians fell mercilessly on settlers who were massacred along with their wives and children. (Willis F Dunbar 169, 170) Following this President George Washington called on young “Mad Anthony” Wayne who spent the next year training his troops. Wayne took his army to the same location where St Clair's army was defeated. The Indians under Chief Little Turtle with 2000 braves was confident that they would have a repeat victory attacked in earnest but this time the troops were ready and defeated the Indians. (Willis F Dunbar 170) Wayne reported that he had proof that the British were behind the attack and supplied them with supplies and ammunition. In 1974 a battle between Wayne's army and a large Indian force under Tecumseh a young Shawnee warrior took place in a place called Fallen Timbers. Wayne was completely victorious. This victory broke the back of the Indian resistance. The Indians realizing that their cause was useless settled for as much as they could get in goods by ceding large areas of land to the Americans in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. (Willis F Dunbar 171)

Detroit had about 500 inhabitants in 1796.

The Jay treaty of 1794 was signed in Europe and the British agreed to abandon its forts by June 1 1796. On July 11 1796 Captain Moses Porter raised the Stars and Stripes over Detroit for the first time. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 57)

It contained mostly French inhabitants who spoke French. The merchants and traders were mainly English and Scotch. There were a few Americans and both Indian and Negro slaves. Those who held slaves were allowed to keep them when the Americans took over as they were considered property. (Willis F Dunbar 176) Fort Lernoult so named by the British was renamed Fort Detroit. Within it were barracks for the troops, and shops for the carpenter, baker and armorer. (Willis F Dunbar 176) Dunbar states that below the fort was the town which consisted of about a hundred mostly log houses. Only a few were frame dwellings. In the river were sloops, schooners, canoes and other kinds of craft. In the town were also shops and taverns. The whole river had ribbon farms on both sides. (Willis F Dunbar 176) Laws were enforced by justices who defined crimes and punishments. Flogging, fines and standing in the stocks were the standard punishments. For lesser infractions. (Willis F Dunbar 179) Center Line was no-man's land in the wilderness.


What the settlers had to say about the Indians

Here is what one settler reported about the Indians: The women cultivated Indian corn, beans, peas, squashes and melons. The Indians danced, and play games such as la crosse. In summer most of the men went naked except for a breech cloth and moccasins. Some wear fancy clothes with lots of vermillion and buffalo hide robes in the winter. many paint their bodies in colorful colors. They often play village against village with heavy betting. (Farmer p 322)

Regarding the Hurons Silas quotes a French memoir. They are the most industrious nation they can be seen the scarcely dance are a always at work raise a very large amount of Indian corn, peas, beans, some grow wheat but they construct their huts entirely of bark. very strong and solid very lofty and very long in arch like arbors. Their fort is strongly encircled with pickets and bastions well redoubled and have strong gates. They are the most faithful nation to the French and most expert hunters we have. Their cabins are divided into sleeping compartments which contain their misirague and are very clean. They are the bravest of all nations and possess considerable talent. They are well clad. Some of them wear close overcoats the men are always hunting summer and winter and the women work. When they go hunting in the fall a goodly number remain to guard their fort. The old women and through out the winter the other women who remain gather wood in large quantity. The soil is very fertile. Indian corn grows there to the height of ten to twelve feet. Their fields are very clean and very extensive. Not the smallest weed is to be seen in them. (Farmer p 322)


Christian Indians Built Michigan's First Road here

1783 peaceful Christian Delaware Indians, escaping from marauding American militia, sought refuge on the Clinton River on land granted by the Chippewa. They were ministered to by the Moravian missionaries. They wanted to provide their good neighbors and themselves with a road that could get their corn to the mill in Detroit. A road was needed because the ground was often too muddy for wagons. By 1786 this group of surviving, Moravian Christian Indians had built the first inland road in Michigan in order to carry their wheat to the mill on Tremble Creek. It ran 23 and one half miles from what is now Southwest Mt. Clemens along the south branch of the Clinton River, along Red Run, then heading south along Bear Creek down what is now Sherwood, then Southeast along Connor which was along Tremble's Creek now Connor's Creek to Tremble's mill. It was at the point where ten mile road crossed this old trail road that Kunrod’s corners was established which eventually lead to the creation of Center Line. What a wonderful legacy they left to our American pioneers after their tribe had been brutally massacred by the Americans. Oh, their reward was to be forced off of their settlement again. The first settlers may have followed this plank road that the Peaceful Indians had built along the Red Run Creek to a higher spot near what is now Mound Road.


Some Indians were very trustworthy and had accounts with local merchants. In 1815 there probably 40,000 Indians in the State of Michigan. 1825 30,000 by 1880 10,141.


General Cass related an experience of James May “During the American Revolutionary war, when the Indian war-parties approached Detroit, they always gave the war and death whoops, so that the inhabitants, who were acquainted with their customs, knew the number of scalps they had brought and of prisoners they had taken...Soon after I arrived in Detroit, the great war party which had captured Ruddle's Station in Kentucky, returned from that expedition. Hearing the usual signals of success, I walked out of town and soon met the party. The squaws and young Indians had ranged themselves on the side of the road, with sticks and clubs, and were whipping the prisoners with great severity. Among these were two young girls, thirteen or fourteen years old who escaped from the party and ran for protection to me and to a naval officer. I found the naval officer, who was with me the preceding day, already there.” Later both he and the naval officer were severely reprimanded for helping the poor children. Those poor children had probably witnessed their parents being killed and scalped and were cruelly and severely being whipped and beaten just because they were captives. (Farmer p262) If one has any doubt about the reason Indians were referred to as savages this should make it very clear. Even the squaws and Indian children were participating in this totally unnecessary cruelty.

“William McVey related the following observation to Judge Witherell which occurred Sept 15, 1814. “David and William Burbank and myself were sitting down [near the fort] Mr McMillan and Archy passed us. We spoke to them about some apples they were eating. They passed on towards some cows that were feeding” nearby ...When they approached within gunshot of some bushes we saw three of four guns fired, and Mr McMillan fall. The Indians instantly dashed upon him and took off his scalp. Archy, on seeing that his father was killed, turned and ran towards us with all the speed that his little legs could supply. A savage on horseback pursued him...The savage sprang from his horse, seized the boy and dragged him off to the woods,” (farmer 285)

“After the massacre at the Raisin, the few who were judged able to march were taken to Malden and Detroit, but when any of them gave out they were tomahawked without mercy. Those who could scarcely walk on account of wounded and bleeding feet were compelled to dance on the frozen ground for the amusement of the savages.” (Farmer 280)

“On arrival of the prisoners at Detroit, the inhabitants used great exertions to procure accommodations for the wounded, and to ransom the prisoners from the Indians. Thirty-four or more were ransomed here, seven by Colonel Elliott of Malden, and one by Colonel Francis Baby. Day after day for a month the prisoners were brought in and with the characteristic sympathy of their sex, the women left ordinary duties undone that they might watch at their doors to bargain for the ransom and relief of the sick and wounded.

“The unfortunate prisoners were literally hawked about the streets for sale, the price ranging from ten dollars to eighty dollars. The only question with the Indians seemed to be, whether they could get more goods for a live captive than for a fresh scalp. One account says, “They even dug up the dead bodies and tore off their scalps that they might cheat their employers by selling them at the same price as if taken from the newly dead.” In their efforts to satisfy the savages and release the noble Kentuckians who had voluntee4ed for the rescue of Detroit, many citizens absolutely impoverished themselves. Household valuables, clothing, shawls, and blankets from the beds, were given in exchange for the captives.” (Farmer 280)

“General Cass in an article for the American Review for April 1827, shows conclusively that the British Government did not ransom a single prisoner during the War of 1812, and that a positive official order was issued prohibiting American citizens from so doing.” (Farmer 285)


Even though treaties were signed by 1783, the British still tried to maintain their power and influence with the Indians. This embolded the Indians and they became more hostile killing many Americans. Silas states “Competent authorities estimate that from 1783 to 1790 not less than three thousand persons were scalped or made captives by bands from Detroit.”


This led to the US Government and groups forming armies to kill the Indians.

American Scalps were paraded daily thru Detroit

Sometimes the Indians won. In 1790 scalps of American soldiers were paraded daily thru the streets of Detroit accompanied by the demoniac scalp-yells of the warriors who had taken them. (Farmer p265) Not all Indians agreed with treaties that cheated them out of their lands and they continued to fight when ever and where ever they could often killing innocent settlers.

Having had thousands of settlers massacred, the Americans went on the attack. They raised militias and armies. American settlers often cruelly attacked innocent and harmless Indians such as the Moravians who were gentle, and peace loving.


General George Rogers Clark and about five hundred frontiersmen led raids against the Indians and the French. Their call was that the only good Indian was a dead Indian.

The American victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and the presence of Wayne’s Army, forced the British to leave Michigan. On July 11, 1796, the American flag was raised over Detroit.


10,000 Americans Kidnapped 1794 Jay’s treaty GET OUT!

The Treaty of Paris (1783) officially ended the American War for Independence, but England refused to leave the forts in the Northwest Territory; also she seized American ships, forcing American sailors to serve in England's war against France. The British still wanted to own North America. They also wanted to control the seas. The British captured over 1000 American ships and kidnapped over 10,000 Americans. They also tried to stop Americans from trading around the world. They fired on American ships. This led to the US to declaring war on the British. In 1794 Jay's Treaty ended British control over Detroit.

Surrendering troops were massacred (Farmer p280)


In 1781 The Spanish attacked Michigan at Fort Miami.


William Tucker was probably the first European person speaking the English language ever brought into this region, [probably about 1760] who afterward settled within the county.

In 1796 Christian Clemens surveyed a half-Indian half-French settlement on the Huron River (Clinton). He later built the first house there. This area was a part of New France but it was claimed by the British and Americans.


American Frontiersman George Rogers Clark and about 172 frontiersmen led raids against the Indians and the British. Go to www.statelib.lib.in.us to learn more about Clark. Why would they do this?

In 1796 General John F Hamtramck was sent to occupy Detroit for the Americans. This was July of 1796. At this time Wayne County was formed. The population was just over 500. This probably did not count Indians. This is down from the often over 2,000 count when the British ran the place. Many British loyalists had left for Canada.


In 1796 Wayne County was formed on paper, named after the general Wayne who defended American settlers. About that time the British loyalists left for Canada. Canada was considered enemy territory for many years. Fort Wayne was later built to protect the US from British attack.


Peaceful Christians Slaughtered

The Americans are coming! As the Americans were coming to power there was more bloodshed and butchery. Into this conflict came brave Christian missionaries from Moravia a section of Germany. Their congregations consisted almost entirely of peaceful Indians, part of a band of Delaware Indians. Some of these migrated to Michigan becoming the first Protestants in Michigan. Clarence M. Burton the prominent historian stated "A band of Moravians went to Gnaden-huetten" (a settlement just west of Mt Clemens on the bank of the Clinton River) "in the spring of 1782 to collect corn they had planted the previous fall." They were collecting this to feed their starving families in Sandusky Ohio when they were taken prisoners by a band of Americans, then taken to Fort Pitt where they were allowed to send for their families. These peaceful Christians were no threat to anyone, "When they had all collected together they were told they must all die. They begged for mercy. They fell upon their knees in prayer and while thus engaged one of their captors picked up a cooper's mallet and with a hasty stride forward he dashed out the brains of the nearest Indian, whose eyes were closed and hands uplifted as he still knelt in prayer. Not an Indian stirred as the murderer proceeded down the line. Again and again he performed the act of murder until a row of fourteen ghastly corpses marked his bloody path. Breathless with the awful work, he tossed the mallet to a companion, saying: "Go on with the glorious work. I have done pretty well." this was but the opening of the tragedy. The flood-gates of murder were open. The tide would have its way. Old men and young men, loving mothers, gentle maidens, and nursing babies, innocent in the sight of earth and Heaven, meek and unresisting as lambs led to the slaughter, were massacred outright. Ninety Six persons were put to death within half an hour." This was done by the Americans. The British, were also incensed against these Christian Indians because it was part of the Moravian creed to be friendly with all people and to take no part in war. The British could not get the Moravian Christians to make war against the Americans. Isn't it ironic that the Americans committed this act against a group of people that would never have hurt them? Historians feel that those Americans acted in haste without thinking out what would have been best. Some historians feel that the language barrier was partly to blame. If some of the parties could have spoken a super simple language such as Esperanto perhaps they could have had better understanding and settled the matter with discussion rather than brute violence.

What was the Indians crime? None. They were just gathering corn that they themselves had planted to feed their starving families. It was rule bruit force rather then rule by law.


The North West Territory was established on paper July 13, 1787 The Governor was General St Clair

The Indiana Territory was established on paper October 1804 The Governor was General Harrison

The Michigan Territory was established on paper Jan 1805. The Governor was General Hull and Cass.

Despite this the needless killing continued in the territory.


Americans hoisted the American Flag in Detroit July 11, 1796 but the killing was not over.

American Commanding Officers over the Detroit Area (Farmer 227)

1796 July 11, Captain Moses Porter

1796, July 12, Colonel John F Hamtramck

1796, Major-General Anthony Wayne

1797, Major-General James Wilkinson

1797, to December 17, 1799 Colonel D Strong

1799, December 17, to February, 1800, Major Henry Burbeck

1800 Colonel Porter

1800-1802, Major Thomas Hunt

1802 to April 11, 1803 Colonel J F Hamtramck

1803 Major Henry Burbeck

1803 Major John Whistler

1803 Colonel Thomas Hunt

1805 August, to April 1807 Captain S T Dyson

1809-1811 Captain Jacob Kingsbury

1812 May, Major John Whistler

1812 July, Colonel Brush

1812, July, to august 16, 1812 Gen Wm Hull

1813 September 29, General Duncan McArthur

1813 Major=General William Henry Harrison

1813 October, Colonel Lewis Cass

1813 November, Captain Abraham Edwards

1814 February, Colonel Anthony Butler

1814 March Colonel George Croghan

1814 July Colonel Anthony Butler

1815 January 1 to February 4 Colonel Charles Gratiot



In 1800 95% of working population engaged in agriculture.


In 1805 Detroit burned down when sparks from the pipe of the town’s baker fell into a pile of hay. The resulting fire spread quickly, only the fort was left standing. Two weeks later the territorial government was formed in Detroit under American General William Hull.


Our area was part of the North West Territory until 1815 when it became the Michigan Territory. In 1805, President Thomas Jefferson signed an act establishing the Michigan Territory.

Of course it was a start at law and order, even if it was martial law.


In 1805 The American emigration had begun and by 1810 Detroit had a population of 750. The population of the entire Michigan territory was 4762.

According to reports most Indians were beggars and the French and British gave them much. The Americans had to feed them. They even asked for free blacksmith service. They did not knock but just came in and begged. This continued all year. By 1825 they were becoming a big nuisance. Some would get drunk and lay around. (Farmer p323)


They fooled a general

In 1812 American General Hull first invaded Canada then without good reason retreated to his strong Fort at Detroit. General Hull after being attacked surrendered his force of over 2,000 and the heavily armed fort at Detroit to a much smaller force led by British General Brock who with the Indian Chief Tecumseh fooled Hull into thinking they had a much larger force.


In 1812 General Hull ordered Fort Dearborn evacuated. Chief Blackbird at the head of a five hundred-man Pottawatomie and Winnebago ambushed the retreating party. Wells and Heald led a desperate defensive attack up the dune. The wagon-train of women and children was left unprotected. In no time, the Americans were completely surrounded and alone; Half the soldiers were killed and the local militia force was systematically wiped out. One bloodthirsty young warrior slipped into a covered wagon and beheaded twelve children. Mrs. Heald's black slave, Cicely, was one of two women killed while fighting to save the young ones. Heald was wounded but alive. Wells was not so lucky. His head was cut off and his heart eaten by the chiefs who hoped to gain some of his courage. Despite Heald’s efforts to ransom the survivors, more were killed after the battle. Others remained Indian prisoners for almost a year. Paraphrased from http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/events/ftdearborn.html


In January 1813 Red Coats and Indians under Tecumseh surprised and captured or killed almost a thousand American militiamen on the River Raisin. This was the bloodiest battle in Michigan history.


In 1813 hundreds of soldiers died from diseases at Detroit during the fall and winter of 1813. British Colonel Proctor learned that his military position was hopeless and ordered all public buildings in Detroit burned and the city evacuated.


The Battle of Lake Erie,

is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, in Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy defeated under command of Oliver Hazard Perry and captured six vessels of Great Britain's Royal Navy. This ensured American control of the lake for the remainder of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh. It was one of the biggest naval battles of the war of 1812. Although Perry won the battle on the Niagara, he received the British surrender on the deck of the recaptured Lawrence to allow the British to see the terrible price his men had paid.

The British lost 41 killed and 94 wounded. The surviving crews, including the wounded, numbered 306. The Americans lost 27 killed and 96 wounded, of whom 2 later died. The vessels were anchored and hasty repairs were underway near West Sister Island when Perry composed his now famous message to Harrison. Scrawled in pencil on the back of an old envelope, Perry wrote: Dear General: We have met the enemy and they are ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop. Yours with great respect and esteem, O.H. Perry (Willis F Dunbar 217) and (Wikipedia)

With lake Erie free of the British General Harrison now with 2,500 troops attacked the British and forced them to withdraw from Forts Malden and Detroit. In September 1813 the bloody British evacuated Detroit but first burned the public buildings. In October 1813 General Harrison also intercepted 850 British Troops and 800 Indians in their retreat to Toronto and defeated them at the battle of the Thames. The Indian chief Tecumseh was killed. The Indians were now totally defeated. Only scattered resistance remained but was gone by 1830.

On October 29 1813 President James Madison appointed Cass governor of the Michigan territory a position he was to have for 18 years. (Willis F Dunbar 218)


By early 1814 the young United States was insolvent. The British almost took back the United States in 1814. They beat the American navy. They marched on Washington DC. They burned and sacked the US Capitol. They attacked American Forts. There were more battles. The British captured more American ships and held Mackinac. But then the Americans got lucky. Major General Andrew Jackson, known to his men as "Old Hickory." managed to beat the British in the Battle of New Orleans on Jan 8, 1815. Events in Europe had actually resulted in the Treaty of Ghent being signed Christmas Eve 1814. (Willis F Dunbar 222) Dunbar also points out that along the 5,425- mile boundary line between Canada and the US today there are more than eight thousand monuments but not a single manned fortification. And the last small garrison at Fort Mackinac was removed in 1894. (Willis F Dunbar 223)

Settlers were still being killed by Indians near Detroit so Governor Cass organized a company of volunteers in Sept 1814.

On Oct 9 General M Arthur arrived with 700 mounted riflemen to protect the city.

But the British continued to search American ships and spent a lot of money on gifts to Indians in hopes of encouraging further Indian attacks on Americans. British influence over Michigan tribes was not easy to eradicate. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 65)

In Oct 1815 Dr Macomb found several Indians encamped near a ravine with remains of several of his cattle. One Indian leveled his gun at Macomb but was shot by one of Macomb's men. (Farmer 285) Detroit was reoccupied September 29. Then Governor Cass has to feed an average of 400 begging Indians a day for several years. They posed a threat to the citizens but he did not have the forces to expel them. (Farmer 323)


Slavery

Slavery was practiced by Indians for thousands of years. It was accepted in Detroit from 1701 as The French allowed slaves. The Indians took slaves and traded them. Most people were against slavery. Michigan was not a slave state. The ordinance of 1787 stipulated that all settlers and traders could “continue to enjoy, unmolested all their property of every kind” including slaves. In 1827 the territorial legislature passes a law protecting free blacks from being kidnapped by slave catchers. Michigan became a major supporter of the underground railroad. The United States gradually turned against slavery. Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865 finally outlawed it.


The Michigan fur trade prospered under John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company based on Mackinac Island. It is said he became the richest man in America. But over trapping and the upward settlement of farmers forced the fur trade to all but end in the early 1830s.


In later years groups of Americans also launched attacks on Canada from Detroit.

Fort Gratiot was built in 1814 at Port Huron. Americans considered the British enemies.


After battles and naval battles on Lake Erie, The War of 1812 was over by the February of 1815.

Because of Put-in-Bay Michigan was In American Hands to Stay. By 1816 the British had withdrawn, and Detroit was back in the hands of the Americans to stay. Look up Commodore Perry and a place called Put-in-Bay! As a child my grandfather took me on a huge steam powered liner named the Put-in-Bay to visit Put-in-Bay. What was Put-in-Bay and what happened to it? There were other big Great Lake side-wheeled-steam powered liners like the Greater Detroit and the Western States. What happened to them? What was the battle of Lake Erie?

Even though Wayne County was formed in 1796 not much had been done as the British and Indians took awhile to exit. They had become largely dependent on Europeans and turned into beggars.


The war, which ended in late 1814, had a devastating effect upon Michiganians. Claiming that more than half the territory’s population was “destitute,” Territorial Justice Augustus Woodward noted in March 1815, “the desolation of the territory is beyond all perception.”

Not until the Americans took control of this area and broke the power of the British and their Indian allies was it safe to settle here. A study by Kentucky showed that 1520 American settlers from Kentucky were murdered in repeated ravages between 1783 and 1790 in the North. In reality the number may have been double that if the years 1700-1830 are factored in.


Malaria and Ague

Unfortunately the flat terrain particularly to the west and southwest of Detroit became wet areas in the spring and fall. Because much of these wet areas had very poor drainage they did not dry out until summer resulting in huge numbers of mosquitoes. With the poor drainage after a big summer rain there were even more mosquitoes. With them came the diseases malaria and ague. Sometimes the Indians and pioneers rubbed garlic or onions on their skin to ward off the insects. Southern Michigan settlers in particular commonly suffered from Malaria and ague. There were few doctors and even fewer real doctors. A good doctor would prescribe Quinine then known as Peruvian bark. It was very expensive and many doctors refused to prescribe it. (Willis F Dunbar 259) The disease was debilitating but not often fatal. A feeling of tiredness followed by chills then a severe fever would come with racking headache and back pain. People would sweat and get the shakes. And often were too sick to do any work. Sometimes this occurred at a certain time each day sometimes every other day. Most people just made effort to survive it and do what they could.

With lack of refrigeration, unpasteurized milk and contaminated water digestive upsets were common. Epidemics of erysipelas (called St. Anthony's Fire) occurred. Dunbar lists contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, mumps and smallpox took a heavy toll. Infant mortality was high. Pneumonia and Rheumatism was common. (Willis F Dunbar 260) There were no dentists and teeth just decayed and rotted in the mouth causing severe pain. If you have ever had a painful tooth you know how bad that is. Imagine having to live with it for years. Sometimes the folk cures for diseases and conditions were worse than the disease.


Epidemics

Medical care for the pioneers was nonexistent. There were no doctors or hospitals or even medicine. Medical knowledge was lacking. You lived or you died. Often people did not know what to do if they got sick. There were no phones to call for help or advice. They did not know that bacteria caused infection. In 1789 an unknown pestilence killed many. In 1813 and 1832 many died of epidemics. In the fall and winter of 1813 a severe epidemic prevailed in General Harrison's army. Hundreds of soldiers died, and were buried near the fort in Detroit.

In 1832 a serious epidemic occurred which may have affected settlers bound for Center Line . Instructions on the prevention and cure of the cholera was printed. The mayor forbade vessels from any other port to land within a hundred yards or to land any person until after an examination by a health officer. Silas Farmer states on July 4 the steamer Henry Clay arrived on her way to Chicago with three hundred and seventy soldiers for the Black Hawk War. “On July 5 one of the soldiers died of cholera and the vessel was immediately ordered to Hog Island. From there she went on her way, but the disease attacked so many of the troops that it was useless for the vessel to proceed and she was compelled to stop at Fort Gratiot. From there the soldiers began to make their way to Detroit, but many of them died on the road and were devoured by wold beasts; only one hundred and fifty [out of 370] reached the city, arriving here about July 8. (Silas Farmer p48) “Meanwhile on July 6 two citizens died of the disease and a panic was at once created. Many persons left their business and fled from the city. In the country the excitement was even greater that at Detroit. On arrival of the mail-coach at Ypsilanti, the driver was ordered by a health officer to stop that an examination of passengers might be made. The driver refusing, his horses were fired on; one was killed, and the driver himself had a narrow escape. At other places fences were build across the roads and travelers were compelled to turn back. At Rochester persons from Detroit were turned our of the hotel and their baggage thrown after them, and the bridges were torn up to prevent persons from entering the village. At Pontiac a body of men were armed, and sentinels were stationed on the highway to prevent ingress. One of the citizens of this latter place, Dr Porter, came here to investigate the disease, but on his return he was refused admittance to his own home and compelled to revisit our city. “[Detroit] The deaths in Detroit were 96 traced mostly to “intemperance and carelessness.” (Silas Farmer p49) In 1834 “the disease again appeared and this time with added horrors.” It began in August and continued til the last of September. In 20 days there were 122 deaths from cholera and 57 from other causes. Ninety=five of these victims were strangers. [Some of those could have been settlers headed for Center Line ] “Seven percent of the population died in a month. Business was hardly thought of. The air appeared unusually oppressive, and to purify it large kettles of pitch were burned at night in front of various housed and at intervals along the streets; the burial rite was shortened; and persons were not allowed to enter or leave the city without inspection and due delay. It had been the custom to toll the bell on the occasion of a death, but the tolling became so frequent that it increased the panic, and was therefore discontinued.” (Silas Farmer p49)

“Mayor Trowbridge was especially active. Day after day he visited the hospital, and in many ways cared for the sick, most honorably fulfilling his duties as the chief magistrate of the city in its time of greatest need.”... “Some of the patients were saved by the care of volunteer attendants after they had been given up by the regular physicians.” (Silas Farmer p49)

“Tall, strong brave Father Martin Kundig outshone and outdid all others by his tireless devotion to the sick and dying. Soon after the cholera had made its appearance, Father Kundig bought the old Presbyterian Church, ...and divided it into two apartments, for male and female patients respectively. A one house ambulance was then prepared, and morning after morning, night after night, he went here and there, gathering in the sick and taking them to the refuge which combined sanctuary and hospital. He was so much of the time with the patients that he was avoided on the streets lest he should spread the configaion. Dying patients, as they passed away, committed their children to his care, and the trust was faithfully administered. The Legislature, on March 18, 1937, vote him $3,000 in acknowledgment of his services; but he was never fully reimbursed for his expenses. He was seconded by the Sisters of St Claire. Mr. Alpheus White also rendered efficient aid, not only neglecting his business himself, but giving also the time of his employees. (Silas Farmer p49)



With epidemics often family members were laid side by side in common graves. Often several family members died within a short time. Many people died of conditions we have cures for now. Many children died young. Many died or suffered close calls even in Center Line and Warren. Smallpox, Cholera, Influenza, TB, Diphtheria, Malaria and others were feared because they were killers (and still are). Many of the pioneer women died early deaths in childbirth. Many children of Center Line and Warren parents died very young of diseases we now have cures for, just as millions of children today are dying of diseases we have cures for and from malnutrition. Some right here in Michigan. Hospitals and good medical care just did not exist until recently. Many so called early doctors did not even graduate from medical school and even if they did the medical knowledge back then was often inadequate. Now we have hospitals and doctors with good medical training but 200,000 people die a year from medical malpractice. And by the way many children and parents in Center Line and Warren now do not have medical or dental coverage. This is not a political statement but historical fact.

Cholera

What a tragedy. Some immigrants traveled thousands of miles to come to Detroit and while waiting to buy Center Line land at the land office in Detroit picked up the cholera bacteria and died shortly thereafter. There was a huge cholera outbreak in 1832. It is very probable that Center Line area settlers (or soon to be settlers) came down with it or died of it. Cholera can be prevented. How does a person get cholera? A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. Shellfish eaten raw have been a source of cholera, and a few persons in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.

There was an epidemic of small pox in 1903 and most of the families in the village were quarantined. Dr Flynn was hired to care for them. Supplies and fuel was also purchased for the families affected.

Many children and adults died of diseases we have cures for now.


1918-1919 There was a terrible influenza epidemic that killed thousands of persons in Michigan and an estimated 25 million people world wide. There were so many orphans that an orphan asylum was active in Detroit.


In the old days there were epidemics and many died or suffered close calls even in Center Line and Warren. Smallpox, Cholera, Influenza, TB, Diphtheria, Malaria and others were feared because they were killers (and still are). Silas Farmer noted historian listed the most common maladies on the frontier as malarious fever, rheumatism, pneumonia, choleraic affections, croup, and pleursy. “There have also been occasional visitations of the ordinary epidemic and contagious diseases, such as influenza, measles, scarlet-fever, small-pox, etc., and within twenty years typhoid or rather typho-malarial fevers, and diphtheria have been added. The total number of deaths in 1880 was 1,074, in 1881, 1,709; in 1882, 2,712 and in 1883 2,957. (Silas Farmer p48)


Because of the poor drainage there were more misquotes which spread disease. Many of the pioneer women died early deaths in childbirth.


Many of the pioneer women died early deaths in childbirth. Many children of Center Line and Warren parents died very young of diseases we now have cures for, just as millions of children today are dying of diseases we have cures for and from malnutrition. Some right here in Michigan. Hospitals and good medical care just did not exist until recently. Many so called early doctors did not even graduate from medical school and even if they did the medical knowledge back then was often inadequate. In fact a person could buy a medical book and in the back was a diploma. Many people became “doctors” in that manner. Now we have hospitals and doctors with good medical training but 200,000 people die a year from medical malpractice. I will say it again. At the present time many children and parents in Center Line and Warren do not have medical or dental coverage. This is historical fact.


How an Indian woman saved the Governor’s life

In 1820 The new governor of Michigan was Lewis Cass. He had a problem. It seems that rumors were being spread that Michigan was a swamp and terrible place to live. This had happened because surveyors had been sent out during a wet season and found many wet areas. He began a campaign to build roads, lighthouses, and he negotiated land treaties with the remaining Indians. He wanted to see for himself what the state was like so he on a 4,200 mile trip around the state. He and his men camped near where Sault Ste Marie is now located. He met with the local chiefs and asked their permission to build a fort there. They told him, no left the meeting and went over to a wigwam nearby and raised a British flag. Cass walked boldly over to the flagpole with only his interpreter, an Indian woman named Neenay. He told the chiefs thru his interpreter that no foreign flag was to be raised. Then he took the British flag down, stepped on it and removed it to his tent. At this point it was very likely that he would have been killed. But his interpreter who was the daughter of an Indian chief and who had gone to school told the chiefs that it would be unwise to kill him as it would bring in the American Army. And thru her another meeting was set up resulting in permission to build the fort and gifts to the Indians. Had there not been an interpreter or a common language another war would probably happened and thousands would have died. Humans need to communicate with each other especially in emergencies. Have you ever tried to talk to someone who does not understand English. What if your life depended on it? Relating it to today’s world 90% of the world does not understand English now and will not learn it in our lifetime. If a few people in each community would invest ten minutes a day to learning the international vocabulary, we could understand and be understood regardless of the local language. Why has it been mentioned here? Because it can save lives and save the US millions wasted in translating costs at the UN which all ends up in the trash within a short time. It has been scientifically proven to be the most time and cost efficient solution to the world language problem. And is historic fact that many people have died because of language nonunderstandings.


Indian Trails

There were no roads so areas close to rivers and lakes were settled first. You can’t drive a wagon thru the woods and get very far. Detroit under European domination grew from a small settlement in 1701 with ever-stronger forts to an ever-bigger village. Hunting expeditions probably followed the Indian trail called the “centre line” what is now Sherwood Ave. Some Indian families may have lived here then. What was the “centre line”? There were several Indian trails in the 1700’s. One trail followed the shoreline From Detroit to Port Huron. It was called the Huron trail probably because it led eventually the Huron River (later named the Clinton River) and on to the Lake Huron. One trail went from Detroit to Saginaw. In the middle was the “centre line trail” as it was called by the French. It ran along what is now Sherwood. It was named the Center Line Road or State Road and even later the part of it in Macomb County was named Sherwood. The Territorial Road Van Dyke became known as the Center Line road after the businesses at Kunrod’s corners moved over to Van Dyke to be near the church built there in 1854.


Peace and Democracy Reigned Supreme

By 1817 democracy reigned supreme said Parkins in his book Historical Geography of Detroit. He quotes a lady resident of Detroit at the time as stating that in Detroit we were all friends Indians, soldiers, French and Americans. In Detroit there was much good society and hospitality. All sociable and interested in each other. Of course the Indians were doing a lot of begging. At this time most people could not read and had not attended school. Schools were being established.

The Americans knew very little about the interior except the areas near the rivers and lakes. Parkins states that the swampy nature of the land in the spring and fall and the dense nature of the vegetation served to check travel and exploration until when in 1818 a party undertook to discover whether the interior was habitable. They followed a road being built by U.S. soldiers which at that time had only reached a point four miles from the river. Then they followed an Indian guide along the Saginaw Trail to the site of Pontiac.

In warm weather the canoe was the major method of transportation and in winter the snow shoe.

US land office established in 1804 and the first public auction was in 1818. The average price of land was $4 per acre. (Farmer p37) Other laws were passed that lowered the price of land and the minimum number of acres that had to be purchased. Some was to be don on installment plan. In 1820 a cash price of $1.25 per acre was established with 80 acres the minimum. This is the price paid by most land buyers in Michigan. (Willis F Dunbar 162) It was not until later in 1862 that the Homestead law was enacted in which a person could receive 160 acres for a small fee by residing on the land for five years. Often a settler wuld build a cabin and clear the land before it was surveyed hoping to be able to purchase it. These were called squatters. In 1841 a “premption law” was passes giving a person who had settled on land, erected a dwelling, and made certain improvements, the right to purchase 160 acres at the minimum land price. (Willis F Dunbar 162)

By this time the few remaining Indians knew that they were outnumbered and that their way of life was no longer to be had here in Michigan. They settled for anything they could get.

In The Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections Volume XVII 1890 History of Township of Shelby, Macomb County George H Cannon notes how the Indians were bought off by gifts gradually signed away their lands. (p420-422)

In general after 1820 what few Indians that had not fled or been killed lived in peace with the settlers. They realized that they were outnumbered and that their hunting, gathering, killing way of life was doomed. Some continued begging or were still a nuisance.


Old Old time recreation

For recreation in these old days there was visiting neighbors, foot races, dancing, singing and music with fiddlers. There was sleigh riding, sliding and ice skating in colder months. Horse riding, picnics on Hog island. Boat rides. There were some old time games and good wholesome food. The air was clean, the water was clean. There was no pollution. There was some drinking, There were community gatherings, picnics, babecue games, foot races, jumping contests, wrestling, pitching, tug of war, singing dancing to an old fiddle and marching and singing games. There were barn raisings, house raisings, husking bees. Contests often included bobbing for apples, pie eating, Greased pig, three legged race, potato sac race. Often young people were looking for a lifetime mate. Couples often got married at 14 or 15. People were happy they felt that they were members of a community of people that cared for each others welfare.


Parks

In the 1800s and early 1900s there were no official parks. Any available shady spot was used if the location was in a location where people wanted to gather. Some farmers even build pavilions for bands and dancing such as at Ryan Park, and 9 Mile Warner park. In the Village of Warren what is now Eckstein park was referred to as Warren Park. There were annual Fourth of July picnics held there. We have been researching parks of late and so far this appears to be oldest park that is still a park. The oldest area used as a park was probably as weird as it may seem was the Green, Hessel Bunert Indian mound park now the baseball field to the south of Briarwood school. Let me clarify. In the old days people held picnics in the cemeteries to be close to their loved ones. Games were played there and music played.



The United States Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 called for division of western lands into townships six miles square and each of these to be divided into 36 numbered sections. The Land was to be surveyed then put up for sale at $1.00 per acre. This led to an orderly transition from wilderness to farmland. And when a territory reached 60,000 it could form a constitution and apply for statehood.


First recorded visit to Center Line area.

The Indian titles were extinguished and Indians subdued. In 1815 the Michigan government began land surveys. Crews of men with measuring chains and tripod mounted compass were sent out to survey the area and mark it. A hardwood stake was set leaving about a foot above ground and all trees in the area were deeply notched. (Willis F Dunbar 239)

George H Cannon writes regarding SE Michigan “The field to be surveyed was so extensive, the the settlers so rapidly crowding into the wilderness, that many surveyors were employed and kept in the field. Among those who did a large amount of work in Michigan territory was Joseph Wampler, of Tuscurawas county, Ohio. It would be of interest to know something of Mr. Wampler's history but, after much correspondence and search, we find nothing definite in relation to him except as appears in the report of his survey. It is a matter commonly understood, among the early settlers, that he was a Methodist preacher but the official records of that body do not disclose his name. However this may be we know that Mr. Wampler was appointed deputy surveyor-general and assigned a contract to survey in the territory of Michigan. The contract bore the date the 18th day of October 1816 comprised the subdivisional survey of eighteen townships in eastern Michigan north of the base line east of the meridian. Described as towns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 north of ranges 10, 11, and 12 east. Eighteen miles in width ease and west and 36 miles in extent north and south.” Cannon notes this was a valuable area well watered and a rich agricultural region.” He notes that a year earlier deputies had abandoned their work stating that the entire county was a lake, swamp or marsh. It was reported that the soil was barren and “Taking the country altogether, so far as has been explored...there would not be one out of a thousand that would in any case admit of cultivation.”

(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections Volume XVII 1890 History of Township of Shelby, Macomb County by George H Cannon p423, 424)

“Mr Wampler entered upon his work the February following the date of his contract. In this it was expressly stipulated that no member of Congress has any interest in it. The compensation for this labors, difficult and important work was only three dollars per mile and fraction thereof. At that time the winter season was deemed the best practicable time to make surveys, largely on account of the ease in crossing marshes and meandering lakes which would be frozen over. Previous to entering upon his work his assistants ( a marker and two chain men) were sworn in and subscribed to an affidavit that they would faithfully discharge their respective duties to the best of their ability and agreeably to instructions. This was signed by William Johnson and David Hoorne, as chain men, and by Joseph Clark as marker. Before the survey of the district was completed another set of chain men were sworn in, on Oct 21, 1817. These were Hatsuld Johnson and Francis Dudley, the latter signing by making his mark.”

Joseph Clark evidently was the marker certified for the entire eighteen towns. Being certified as correct on Feb 3, 1818.

(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections Volume XVII 1890 History of Township of Shelby, Macomb County by George H Cannon p423, 424)


“In connection it may not be amiss to say that, taken as a whole, the survey in Mr Wampler's district was, for those times, quite fairly done. And when we take into account the beggarly compensation of three dollars per mile for so important a work, the entire want of oversight on the part of any government official as the work progressed in the field—all being left entirely to the honor and integrity of the surveyor--it must be conceded to be a matter worthy of great praise that the work was done so well that the settlers were enabled to locate their land without serious difficulty.” Cannon notes that in many other cases other surveyors acquired the habit of returning fraudulent work largely made up of imaginary and fictitious notes. He states “It would appear that even at that early day the government, as well as individuals, had to learn the important lesson that honest work required honest pay and that both were best assured by one's knowledge; that fidelity to duty was by no means impaired by adequate compensation for work faithfully performed.” After the survey notes were turned in the land could be put up for sale. Parts of the area were heavily forested, parts were grassy plains with scarcely any timber, other parts were swampy. (Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections Volume XVII 1890History of Township of Shelby, Macomb County by George H Cannon p423, 424)



When Wampler surveyed the Center Line area in 1817 they found swampy ground and other land up by the Red Run occupied by a few squatters and a few Indians. So Center Line was being settled before Michigan became a state and before Macomb County was formed.


There were no roads just pathways marked by markers and blazed trees. Some folks made heavy dugout canoes which worked fine until the wood cracked and they leaked or split in half. Then they found out why the Indians made them out of birch bark sealed with rosin. It was impossible to get a wagon thru the woods and marshes.


Center Line settled first by canoe

It is likely that the area of Center Line Village, Beebe’s corners, was settled just a little before Kunrod’s Corners because the settlers could get there by water which was the primary method of travel at that time. Bear Creek had a tributary leading to the Centre Line Road which explains the zigzag where Sherwood crosses the railroad tracks. The earliest settlers probably settled along this route. They may have arrived by means of lake St Clair to the Huron river (now Clinton) to Red Run creek to the Creek Road. This route entailed less tramping thru the dense wilderness than the trek from Detroit. If they had or rented wagons they could have used the Moravian plank road that the peaceful Christian Moravian Indians had built. The centre line trail became The State Road with use and was planked in 1856. It was the main North-South road for many years. It became a stock company road and had planks 10 feet wide. Many years later in 1890 when the planks had became rotten the road was condemned, then repaved with gravel.

The new American economy was booming and land around the fort at Detroit was growing more scarce. The great immigration was about to begin. Settlers came from the eastern United States and from many lands.

In 1818 Macomb County was formed. A base line had been set up across the state and the future main roads drawn on maps. It was the third county in Michigan. Parkins states that from 1818 immigration steadily increased. By 1820 the population of Michigan was 8,765.

After about 1818 we started to have rule by law not brute force. Constables were appointed. People accused were able to get a fair trial. James Fulton served as the first Macomb County sheriff from 1818-1822. There has been constant sheriff service since that time. Later as villages formed constables were appointed. Things were mostly settled in a peaceful manner rather than by brute force. Finally under American Rule of Law Center Line had law and order and this has created almost two hundred years of peace unknown to the Center Line area at any prior time in the past.

The federal government started selling land in Macomb County. In 1819 the county of Oakland was subtracted and in 1820 the county of St Clair was subtracted from Macomb County. Romeo further north wasn’t beginning to be settled until 1821.

1825 Erie Canal

The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 ushered in an active period of emigration. It was only four feet deep and 42 feet wide. It linked the Hudson River with Lake Erie. (363 miles). This made it easier and faster for immigrants to come here. And there were thousands of immigrants about to head west. In 1818 the first steamship began on the Great Lakes with the “Walk in the Water”. It was wrecked and her engine used in a new ship the Superior. Until 1825 there was only one steamship between Detroit and Buffalo. Two additional ones were launched that year followed by more. (Willis F Dunbar 245) Because of the depression land sales actually declined for a few years after that.

1825 patient on tin cans but not in common use until later.

1826 Warren and Center Line was still a heavily timbered area. The Moravian road was only a trail.


Land For Sale!

The federal government was selling land to raise money. Land was for sale for only $1.25 an acre. In 1836 4.1 million acres were purchased in Michigan. The settlers usually came by boat to Detroit and then by canoe along the Huron River to Red Run Creek or they came over land by horsepower or on foot from there. The main settlement in the area that was to become Center Line occurred after 1830.

From 1825-37 immigration from eastern States increased rapidly. By 1836 500-700 arrived on a single boat. There were long lines at the land office.


Warren arrives

War hero Rev Abel Warren settled in what was to become Macomb County in the summer of 1824.

Settlers came from the eastern United States and from many lands.

Charles Groesbeck settled in Section 33 in 1830. Then followed Charles Rivard in 1831 in Section 35. He made a homestead at the northwest corner of 12 Mile and Mound. Others followed Louis Groesbeck and the Beebe Family who settled near the trail (later called the Creek Road) that ran along the Red Run Creek. This led to the name Beebe’s corners because it had a toll gate run by John L Beebe, to pay for the labor that went into the plank road paving over the marshy area of road. The road was ten feet wide and made of oak planks. Loaded wagons had the right of way. Or if both were loaded or empty the wagon heading South had the right of way and the other one had to pull off. This was not very good after a rain as the ground became very muddy. John Beebe also operated a general store, tin shop and later a post office.

1826 Center Line was still a heavily timbered area. The Moravian road was still a trail road.

The land office was doing a booming business in the 1830s. Most of the settlers arrived after 1830. The dense trees were cut for homes, fuel and crop land. The area of Warren and Center Line began to be changed from mature forest to rough farmland with tree stumps.


Settlers came from many countries

Prior to the Civil War most of Michigan's and Center Line 's residents were New Englanders coming primarily from New York. “All brought with them the Yankee traits of industry, thrift, religious zeal, reformism, and interest in education. “ (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 74) The new settlers were primarily agriculturalists interested in growing cash crops of wheat and corn. They raised rye, barley, oats, potatoes, hay and beans.



Center Line later had settlers from many European countries. They spoke German, Dutch, Flemish, French, Belgium, Irish, Welsh, Swedish and a few even spoke English although Center Line pioneers were known to have a slight German accent.

Rule of law at last

Rule of law at last No longer did Kings dictate to us, or tribes attack us. We had rights and laws that people followed. The rule of brute force had been defeated. Settlers no longer had to fear being slaughtered for scalps or because someone wanted their land. Land was recorded. For the first time in our history we had a constitution and bill of rights. We had freedom of speech and religion. We had a say in our government. But most of all we had Peace and freedom with liberty and justice for all.

The federal government to raise money was selling land. The land office was a busy place. The settlers usually came by boat to Detroit and then by horsepower or on foot from there. The main settlement in the area that was to become Center Line occurred after 1830.


The pioneers came by canoe and or along narrow forest flanked trails into the dense wilderness. They came with few tools and against terrific odds and met with determination what modern people would term impossible problems. Imagine for a moment being left completely on your own in a forest wilderness with no: insect repellent, house or shelter no super markets, no showers no electrical power, no appliances, no telephone, no power saws, no gas heat, no running waters no cars, tractors or trucks, no machines, no radios, TV or entertainment, no canned foods, pop, beer, no paper products, no bottled milk, or other packaged foods, no street lights or even streets, no police, no coffee, no credit cards, no job, no ready made bread, no toilets no toilet paper or wards catalog. The courageous pioneers felled the trees drained wet areas, constructed temporary shelters then log cabins, and tilled the land.

Robert Ramsey bought 160 acres in NE Center Line Dated January 6, 1835. according to tract Book page 8 Located on the Northwest quarter of Section 22, Township 1 North of Range 12 East. He sold 80 acres of that to JONATHAN CRABB in 1838.

Land Clearer Families in Warren Township were Adams John, Barton Isaac 4, Barton John H, Bird Joseph 24, Bruce J 5, Corey H 22, Cummings 26, Cramer J 22 28, Denison Avery 9, Desgrandchamps P 28, Fink E 35, Fink W 1, Gibbs Orton 4, Gillett Peter , Glazier J 10, Gray Richardson 4, Groesback Charles 4, 21, 33, 34, Groesback Louis 26, 28, Groesbeck Wm 30, 28, 33, Hartsig 16, 10, Hartsig W 16, Harwood A 9,16, Hines Michael 26, Hitchcock Orley, Jenney Horace , Jones Northrup d 1841, Murry Obadiak 6, Nolan Patrick, Nolan John 34, Nolan Michael D 1888 SC, Rivard Charles 33, Rivard Fabien 33, Ryan Michael 26, 27 D 1884 SC, Smith Ames, Smith Luman 6, Smith Robert D 13 D 1889, Spinnings Daniel, Spinnings Mary 4, Sullivan Owen 27, VanAntworp Daniel, Whelan Michael , Wilson George, Wilson Jeremiah, Wilson Moses 3.


Why are most of these dated in the 1830s?

First the land was not put for sale until the survey was done and filed in 1818. Macomb county was just formed in 1818. Some troublesome savages still had to be cleared out because they still posed a threat to settlers. It took a few years to counter the reports of the whole area being a swamp. Reports had been sent out east about the area being a big swamp and it took a few years for other more accurate reports to be spread out east. Only parts of Warren were wet lands. Potential land buyers had to come here and see that the land could be drained and check out the soil. There was no transportation to the area. The trail had to be improved. Most settlers were directed to other places which had better reputations. In 1825 the Erie Canal opened and it took a few years for ships to be built. By the 1830s transportation was available. Settlers could buy a comfortable trip from the Atlantic Ocean to Detroit for less than $10. (Kern 18) Michigan's population grew from 9,000 non -Indians to 29,000 in 1830, and to 212,000 by 1840. (Kern 18) “By 1850 ...Michigan's immigrants from the Northwest outnumbered her immigrants from the South 45 to 1. (Kern 18) But Detroit had to overcome severe epidemics. People did not want to come thru Detroit and get a fatal disease. As all of these issues became favorable word got out east and settlers and speculators arrived in ship loads of hundreds.


Here are the original land patents for Warren Township

Patentee Name State County Issue, Date Land Office Doc., Nr. Accession, Serial Nr.

ADAMS, CHARLES S MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17457 MI0650__.454

ALDRICH, ASQUIRE W MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15023 MI0310__.030

ALDRICH, ASQUIRE W MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16850 MI0640__.359

ALEXANDER, GILMAN MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15708 MI0620__.237

ALEXANDER, GILMAN MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15713 MI0620__.242

ALEXANDER, GILMAN MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15948 MI0620__.476

AMBROSE, RUEL MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16440 MI0630__.458

AMBROSE, RUEL MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17204 MI0650__.207

AVETTE, FELIX MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9407 MI0190__.434

BAILEY, WILLIAM MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15968 MI0620__.496

BARBER, WILSON MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14383 MI0290__.396

BARKER, BENJAMIN G MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16693 MI0640__.205

BARKER, BENJAMIN G MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16720 MI0640__.231

BARKER, BENJAMIN G MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16721 MI0640__.232

BARKER, BENJAMIN G MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16722 MI0640__.233

BARROWS, CHARLES MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12229 MI0250__.260

BARTON, ISAAC W MI Macomb 9/10/1834 Detroit 7841 MI0160__.377

BARTON, JOHN H MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 8977 MI0190__.006

BEUFAIT, LOUIS MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8918 MI0180__.440

BEUFAIT, VITAL MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8948 MI0180__.470

BIRD, JOSEPH MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14229 MI0290__.243

BIRD, JOSEPH MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16368 MI0630__.386

BOLAM, GEORGE MI Macomb 10/9/1835 Detroit 8131 MI0170__.158

BROWN, CULLEN MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16244 MI0630__.265

BROWN, CULLEN MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16299 MI0630__.319

BROWN, CULLEN MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16369 MI0630__.387

BRUCE, JAMES N MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14835 MI0300__.345

BRUCE, JAMES N MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9025 MI0190__.054

BRUCE, THOMAS MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9024 MI0190__.053

BRYANT, LORING MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12402 MI0250__.436

BUELL, SAMUEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13600 MI0280__.222

BUELL, SAMUEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13601 MI0280__.223

BURTIS, JOHN MI Macomb 5/1/1839 Detroit 17431 MI0860__.428

BURTON, IRA MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9314 MI0190__.341

BURTON, JOHN H MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16971 MI0640__.478

BUTLER, PATRICK MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9920 MI0200__.444

BUTLER, TERTULLUS D MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16717 MI0640__.229

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 10042 MI0210__.307

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9850 MI0200__.374

CANTO, JOHN MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8708 MI0180__.230

CARPENTER, WILLIAM N MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16727 MI0640__.238

CHASE, DAVID MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16420 MI0630__.438

CHASE, JONATHAN MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16602 MI0640__.117

CHASE, JONATHAN MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17079 MI0650__.082

CHICOINE, HUBERT MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13552 MI0280__.176

CLARK, ELIAS MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15022 MI0310__.029

COLTON, ALMON MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12877 MI0260__.405

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 13559 MI0620__.012

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13560 MI0280__.183

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13561 MI0280__.184

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13562 MI0280__.185

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13563 MI0280__.186

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13564 MI0280__.187

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16271 MI0630__.292

CONANT, SHUBAEL MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16272 MI0630__.293

COOK, JOHN MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15774 MI0620__.303

COOK, LEVI MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17765 MI0660__.256

COREY, HARRIS MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12388 MI0250__.422

CRANE, JAMES G MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16665 MI0640__.178

CROULY, MICHAEL MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16620 MI0640__.133

CUMMINS, MICHAEL MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16060 MI0630__.081

CURTIS, ISRAEL MI Macomb 1/1/1831 Detroit 3249 MI0080__.017

DALTON, MICHAEL MI Macomb 5/18/1844 Detroit 14168 MI0880__.311

DAVISON, ENOCH S MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15889 MI0620__.416

DAVISON, JOSEPH L MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15888 MI0620__.415

DAY, WILLET C MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12179 MI0250__.210

DENISON, MERCY L MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12018 MI0250__.049

DESGRANDCHAMPS, CELESTIN MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10546 MI0220__.069

DESGRANDCHAMPS, FRANCOIS MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8852 MI0180__.374

DESGRANDCHAMPS, PIERRE MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10546 MI0220__.069

DESNOYERS, PETER J MI Macomb 1/14/1837 Detroit 9416 MI0190__.443

DORSEY, WILLIAM MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16729 MI0640__.240

DOTY, ELLIS MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16589 MI0640__.105

DOTY, HENRY MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16590 MI0640__.106

DULLEA, MAURICE MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16331 MI0630__.350

EGGERT, JOHN MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9419 MI0190__.446

EVANS, ANNA MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10719 MI0220__.242

EWERS, ALVAH MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14461 MI0290__.474

EWERS, ALVAH MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14462 MI0290__.475

FASSETT, CHARLES A MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16829 MI0640__.339

FISK, GEORGE W H MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16617 MI0640__.131

FRENCH, JOEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12532 MI0260__.065

GIBBS, SAMUEL MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15050 MI0310__.057

GIES, HENRY MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 11874 MI0240__.404

GILLET, PETER MI Macomb 8/1/1833 Detroit 6705 MI0140__.259

GIRON, JOSEPH MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9407 MI0190__.434

GLAZIER, JENISON F MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10513 MI0220__.036

GODARD, LEWIS MI Macomb 8/12/1837 Detroit 16328 MI0760__.002

GODARD, LEWIS MI Macomb 8/12/1837 Detroit 16338 MI0760__.003

GODFREY, GEORGE C MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16664 MI0640__.177

GRAY, RICHARDSON MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8782 MI0180__.304

GROESBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12422 MI0250__.455

GROESBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12423 MI0250__.456

GROESBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 9989 MI0210__.255

GROESBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 9990 MI0210__.256

GROESBECK, LOUIS MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 10307 MI0210__.353

GROESBECK, LOUIS MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12212 MI0250__.243

GROESBECK, WILLIAM MI Macomb 9/10/1834 Detroit 7533 MI0160__.076

GROLL, JOHN MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 11830 MI0240__.360

GROLL, JOHN MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 11881 MI0240__.411

GROSBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 1/5/1831 Detroit 3484 MI0070__.418

GROSBECK, CHARLES MI Macomb 7/10/1832 Detroit 5259 MI0110__.289

GROSBECK, LEWIS MI Macomb 1/3/1831 Detroit 3602 MI0080__.142

GROSBECK, LEWIS MI Macomb 1/1/1831 Detroit 3748 MI0080__.284

GUTH, FREDERICK MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9415 MI0190__.442

HADDEN, CHARLES D MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9673 MI0200__.197

HAIGHT, ALONZO MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8628 MI0180__.151

HAMMER, DAVID G MI Macomb 4/10/1925 Marquette 05180 957489

HARTWELL, LIBERTY MI Macomb 9/16/1848 Detroit 16449 MI0880__.401

HASTINGS, EUROTAS P MI Macomb 11/2/1837 Detroit 16586 MI0850__.038

HASTINGS, EUROTAS P MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16587 MI0640__.103

HASTINGS, EUROTAS P MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9709 MI0200__.233

HATCH, CHARLES B MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12111 MI0250__.142

HERRINGTON, ABRAM MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16539 MI0640__.060

HILL, GEORGE W MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16847 MI0640__.356

HINES, MICHAEL MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14712 MI0300__.224

HOLLENBECK, CORNELIUS MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13083 MI0270__.111

HOWELL, ROBERT R MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16755 MI0640__.266

HUMMEL, VANDELINE MI Macomb 9/10/1834 Detroit 7580 MI0160__.121

HUNTER, PHILANDER MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16202 MI0630__.223

INGERSOLL, JUSTUS MI Macomb 8/15/1837 Detroit 24046 MI0780__.468

INGERSOLL, NEHEMIAH MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13566 MI0280__.189

INGERSOLL, NEHEMIAH MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16300 MI0630__.320

INGERSOLL, NEHEMIAH MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16957 MI0640__.465

INGERSOLL, NEHEMIAH MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16958 MI0640__.466

INGHAM, WILLIAM S MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17280 MI0650__.283

JERMAIN, SYLVANUS P MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16848 MI0640__.357

JERMAIN, SYLVANUS P MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16849 MI0640__.358

JEROME, EDWIN MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16755 MI0640__.266

KEISER, CHRISTOPHER MI Macomb 10/9/1835 Detroit 8303 MI0170__.326

KIRK, JOHN M MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16171 MI0630__.192

KNAGGS, MONIQUE MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8955 MI0180__.477

LADEROUTE, EVANGILE MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12381 MI0250__.415

LADEROUTE, LAMBERT MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12283 MI0250__.314

LADEROUTE, PETER MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12719 MI0260__.250

LAFFERTE, JACQUES MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12699 MI0260__.231

LAMPHERE, ARCHABALD MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8857 MI0180__.379

LAMPHERE, VARNUM MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8858 MI0180__.380

LAMPHERE, VARNUM MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8859 MI0180__.381

LANGEVIN, CHARLES MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12393 MI0250__.427

LEECH, GURDON C MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16641 MI0640__.154

LINN, ROBERT MI Macomb 9/2/1835 Detroit 7383 MI0150__.434

LINSLEY, DANIEL MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9675 MI0200__.199

LITTLE, THOMAS MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16665 MI0640__.178

LYONS, CORNELIUS MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16322 MI0630__.342

MACK, ANDREW MI Macomb 5/1/1839 Detroit 17431 MI0860__.428

MANN, HARVEY MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10575 MI0220__.098

MANN, HARVEY MI Macomb 10/8/1835 Detroit 11415 MI0230__.445

MARA, CORNELIUS MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10913 MI0220__.436

MCCARTY, JOHN MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15034 MI0310__.041

MCGOVRAN, JOHN MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15069 MI0310__.076

MILES, WILLIAM S MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16191 MI0630__.212

MILLER, BURNET MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17362 MI0650__.364

MILLER, BURNET MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17446 MI0650__.443

MOORE, LEPRELETTE H MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12461 MI0250__.494

MOORE, REUBEN MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16727 MI0640__.238

MORONY, WILLIAM MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16702 MI0640__.214

MURREY, OBADIAH MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10744 MI0220__.267

NOLAN, WILLIAM MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 14783 MI0620__.023

NOLAN, WILLIAM MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14784 MI0300__.294

NOWLAN, JAMES MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15063 MI0310__.070

NOWLAN, JOHN MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 10199 MI0210__.103

NOWLAN, JOHN MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14378 MI0290__.391

ODONNELL, PATRICK MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14713 MI0300__.225

OMARRA, JAMES MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 9979 MI0210__.245

PARKER, JOHN S MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15709 MI0620__.238

PARKER, JOHN S MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15710 MI0620__.239

PHELAN, MICHAEL MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9905 MI0200__.429

PHILLIPS, ASAPH MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9347 MI0190__.374

PHILLIPS, JOHN MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9348 MI0190__.375

PRONIMAN, JOHN MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9544 MI0200__.069

QUICK, ANDREW V MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13691 MI0280__.313

QUICK, JOSEPH H MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13690 MI0280__.312

RAMSEY, ROBERT MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12344 MI0250__.379

RANO, MARTIN MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8830 MI0180__.352

REEVES, GARRET MI Macomb 10/8/1835 Detroit 11381 MI0230__.411

RHODES, HIRAM M MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12379 MI0250__.413

RHODES, HIRAM M MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12416 MI0250__.449

RHODES, LYMAN E MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12383 MI0250__.417

RHODES, LYMAN E MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12663 MI0260__.195

RICKERT, JOHN L MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9699 MI0200__.223

RINN, TIMOTHY MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16323 MI0630__.343

RIPLEY, DAVID MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 10080 MI0210__.222

RIVARD, CHARLES MI Macomb 4/4/1833 Detroit 4887 MI0100__.419

RIVARD, CHARLES MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9152 MI0190__.181

RIVARD, FABIAN MI Macomb 4/4/1833 Detroit 4886 MI0100__.418

RIVARD, VICTOIRE MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12421 MI0250__.454

ROGAN, THOMAS MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14466 MI0290__.479

ROOD, EZRA MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14015 MI0290__.033

ROWLAND, DAVID H MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17036 MI0650__.044

RUDE, GIDEON MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14509 MI0300__.022

RYAN, MICHAEL MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12447 MI0250__.480

RYAN, MICHAEL MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15322 MI0310__.325

RYAN, MICHAEL MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 15323 MI0310__.326

SCHERMERHORN, JOHN MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13258 MI0270__.284

SHELLY, THOMAS MI Macomb 4/15/1837 Detroit 15653 MI0620__.183

SHERWOOD, HENRY T MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 13984 MI0290__.002

SMITH, HARRY MI Macomb 8/1/1833 Detroit 6516 MI0140__.072

SMITH, LUMAN MI Macomb 8/1/1833 Detroit 6517 MI0140__.073

SMITH, RANSOM MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9556 MI0200__.081

SMITH, ROBERT D MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16190 MI0630__.211

SNOW, JOSIAH MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16617 MI0640__.131

SOPER, HARRIS MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14094 MI0290__.110

SPINNINGS, MARY MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10654 MI0220__.177

STACKPOLE, EDWARD MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16702 MI0640__.214

STAWCH, GEORGE J MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12390 MI0250__.424

STEVINS, EDWIN MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16458 MI0630__.475

STODDARD, ASA MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 12211 MI0250__.242

STODDARD, ASA MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 12347 MI0250__.382

STRONG, JOHN W MI Macomb 5/20/1841 Detroit 16846 MI0870__.486

STUART, ROBERT MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16244 MI0630__.265

STUART, ROBERT MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16369 MI0630__.387

SULLIVAN, DANIEL MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16005 MI0630__.026

SULLIVAN, OWENS MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 11676 MI0240__.206

TEHEN, CORNELIUS MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14875 MI0300__.383

TIERNEY, THOMAS MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9662 MI0200__.187

TITUS, SILAS MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17365 MI0650__.367

TORREY, CHARLES MI Macomb 8/3/1839 Detroit 10566 MI0220__.089

TORREY, CHARLES MI Macomb 10/8/1835 Detroit 11391 MI0230__.421

TORREY, JOSEPH W MI Macomb 10/14/1846 Detroit 6280 MI0880__.319

VAN ANTWERP, DANIEL MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9681 MI0200__.205

VAN ANTWERP, DANIEL MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9698 MI0200__.222

VAN ANTWERP, SARAH MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17274 MI0650__.277

VEDDER, AARON MI Macomb 10/28/1835 Detroit 10081 MI0210__.221

WALKER, PHINEAS MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16838 MI0640__.348

WARD, JOHN MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 11633 MI0240__.162

WATROUS, ANDREW M MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 16949 MI0640__.457

WILLIAMS, GERSHOM M MI Macomb 4/20/1838 Detroit 16450 MI0630__.467

WILLIAMS, GERSHOM M MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17975 MI0660__.466

WILSON, MOSES W MI Macomb 10/15/1835 Detroit 8793 MI0180__.315

WILSON, SILAS MI Macomb 10/14/1835 Detroit 9066 MI0190__.095

WINANS, JAMES D MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17192 MI0650__.195

WINANS, JAMES D MI Macomb 5/1/1837 Detroit 17193 MI0650__.196

WINDER, JOHN MI Macomb 9/4/1838 Detroit 16575 MI0850__.387

WINDER, JOHN MI Macomb 9/4/1838 Detroit 16576 MI0850__.388

WINTER, FREDERICK MI Macomb 11/23/1835 Detroit 9576 MI0200__.101

WITHERELL, BENJAMIN F MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16244 MI0630__.265

WITHERELL, BENJAMIN F MI Macomb 5/1/1838 Detroit 16369 MI0630__.387

WYCKOFF, HENRY MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13251 MI0270__.277

WYCKOFF, HENRY S MI Macomb 4/1/1837 Detroit 13248 MI0270__.274

YAKES, GABRIEL MI Macomb 4/10/1837 Detroit 14528 MI0300__.041

Of course many of these people resold their land to others who became the ones to actually begin farming in the area.


Settlers of Center Line

__ P or R myre J map1859 s27 SECL

__Fide P map1859 s27 SECL

Adams P. map 1875 s27 SECL

Ardy Mrs map 1875 s28 SWCL

Ardy Straket

Angleman J map1859 s27 SECL

Antonie William

Altermatt Joseph

Baumgardner George

Bearman Jos map 1875 s21 WCL

Berghofer C.  shoemaker

Bigfield P map1859 s28 sWCL

Bloom M map1859 s28 sWCL

Bourike M map 1875 s22 ECL

Brower A map1859 s22 ECL

Buechel John

Buechel Joseph  hist map 1875 s21 WCL

Buechel Sophia hist

Burg Peter

Burkhesier Adam

Bush G map1859 s28 sWCL

Campbell John

Clemens   scch

Conrad Louis saloon

Corey G W mp1859 s21

Cramer Joseph scc 1854 map1859 s22 ECL map 1875 s22 ECL

Creemer J map 1875 s28 SWCL

Cramer Jas

Cramer map 1875 s28 SWCL

Cramer P. map 1875 s22 ECL

Dalton Robert

DeConintle Jos map 1875 s22 ECL

DeGrandchamp John

DeGrandchamp William

Desgrandchamps P map 1875 s28 SWCL

DeSmet L. map 1875 s22 ECL

Dupel Carl shoemaker

Dwyer J map 1875 s27 SECL

Ebert Mrs map1859 s28 sWCL

Elliot John map 1875 s21 WCL

Engleman Hyronemus

Engleman J. map 1875 s28 SWCL

Freidhoff John

Friedhoff George

Gill George

Grobbel Ben

Grobbel John

Grobbel Joseph

Groesbeck Alex map 1875 s28 SWCL

Groesbeck C S & L sawmill map1859

Groesbeck Chas map 1875 s21 WCL

Groesbeck F.E. map1859 s28  Grocery store map 1875 s28 SWCL

Groesbeck L map1859 s28 sWCL0

Groesbeck Noah

Grushep Louis lumber manufacturer

Guion Peter

Gerome J map 1875 s28 SWCL

Hafferley John

Hagger M map1859 s22 ECL

Halmich Henry

HensinJ P map 1875 s28 SWCL

Hassell Wm map 1875 s27 SECL

Hendricks Rev. Wiley Catholic Pastor

Hessel Reinhold

Hasset Wm map1859 s27 SECL

Hoste Bernard

Hulbert J map 1875 s22 ECL

Jacobs C map 1875 s21 WCL

Jackson Daniel

Jackson William

Jerer J map1859 s28 sWCL

Kaltz A. map 1875 s22 ECL

Kaltz Mrs Frank

Kaltz G. map 1875 s22 ECL

Kaltz H.

Kaltz J. J. map 1875 s27 SECL

Kaltz J map1859 s27  SECL

Kaltz Peter map 1875 s21 WCL

Kaltz Wm map1859 s21 WCL

Katta H Store map1859 s21 WCL

Kramer Joseph carpenter

Kramer map 1875 s22 ECL

Kuchey Michael

Kultz Frank general store

Kultz H map 1875 s21 WCL

Kultz Matthew blacksmith

Kunrod  1840? hist WCL

Laferty J map1859 s21 WCL

LaMael August

Lefevre Mrs. map 1875 s22 ECL

Lentz M. map 1875 s22 ECL

Leonard Simon

Mathias  scc 1854

Mcarty R map1859 s22 ECL

Meyer Jos.

Miller Miss Catherine

Metter Joseph

Miller Jos

Miller P.K map 1875 s22 ECL

Miller’s Gus hist

Miller Josepf  scc1854 map1859 s22 ECL map 1875 s22 ECL

Mathias Miller general store map 1875 s22 ECL

Moser J map1859 s28 sWCL

Mussei ? W map1859 s27 SECL

Parash P map1859 s22 ECL

Parach P map 1875 s22 ECL

Peters Alfred

Peters Antoine

Peters Henry

Peters Lambert

Rasch Robert

Reichert Peter wagon maker

Riem R. map 1875 s22 ECL

Rinke Andrew

Rinke Joseph A

Rivard Frank

Rivard Joseph

Rotarius Peter scc 1854 map 1875 s21 WCL

Rotarius J. P map1859 s22 ECL map 1875 s22 ECL

Rubinet J. map 1875 s22 ECL

Ruhlman Chris

Ryan John map1859 s27 SECL map 1875 s27 SECL

Schlant J.

Schlenme L map 1875 s27 SECL

Schoenherr Louis

Siglar G map1859 s21

Sex or Sox P &HR map1859 s27 SECL

Simons Wiley physician

Smidt W map1859 s27 SECL

Smith L map1859 s22 ECL

Smith Michael

Smith   map 1875 s21 WCL

Smitts Wm map 1875 s27 SECL

Springer George

Spinning Chas E map 1875 s27 SECL

Stealer map 1875 s28 SWCL

Sullivan J map1859 s27 SECL

Sullivan M map 1875 s27 SECL

Trombly J map1859 s21 WCL

Trombly Vincent map 1875 s21 WCL

Trombly N. map 1875 s21 WCL

Thiet P map 1875 s27 SECL

Vaer Hoven Henry

Vandsutter Mrs saloon,

VeLyne, August

Warner Jos map 1875 s21 WCL

Warner J map 1875 s21 WCL

Withoff Mrs saloon

William Theut, John Theut

Welch M. map 1875 s28 SWCL

Wiegand general store hist

Wiegand Frank

Wilie’s Butcher Shop

Weingartz Johann  scc 1854

Weingartz M. map1859 s21 WCL map 1875 s21 WCL

Wolf Anthony

Yosrock B map 1875 s28 SWCL

Youngblood B map 1875 s28 SWCL


What was on the pioneers table?

The pioneers were not lacking for meat or fish. Our area abounded in wild life. At first vegetables had to be grown and all cooking done outside. Tables were well supplied Beavers tails, wild ducks, turkeys, partridges, quails, bear-steaks, venison, whitefish, hulled corn, succotash, baked French pears. (Farmer p 338) The first settlers had few utensils. Fires had to be lighted without match or lighters and kept going around the clock. Sugar was made from maple syrup. Wild homey was occasionally discovered in the woods.

Fences had to be erected and crops for animal food planted. Later domesticated animals were brought in. Silas states “The Gazette for July 25, 1817, announced that ‘during the proceeding two weeks 1,700 head of cattle were brought from Ohio.’”


Because of wolves one could not keep small livestock safely unless they were kept in a shed or barn.


Crops were Corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, rye, barley, buckwheat, tobacco, hops plus clover and the garden crops.

Prior to 1830 maple sugar was the only sugar in common use. Early American settlers daily drink was wintergreen tea sweetened with maple sugar. ( Farmer p389) And of course there was the full range of fresh vegetables from the gardens. Everything was organic. There were no pollutants in the water. The air was absolutely clean. There were no chemicals being dumped into the air.


One good turn led to another

I have heard of Indians helping the pioneers and of cooperation between them. One cold winter night an early pioneer heard a knock at his door. Because there was no law in the early years one answered his door with gun in hand. At the door was a nearly frozen Indian family that just wanted to get warm. The settler to protect his family tried to stay awake all night to keep his eyes on the Indians but towards morning he fell asleep. When he awoke the Indians were gone. He looked around to see that his family was ok. They were still sleeping peacefully and nothing was missing. When he opened the door he found that the Indians had left him a present fresh venison enough to feed his family for several days.

At times Indians and settlers helped each other. At times they fought each other. Some were proud and honest. One could not blame the Indians for distrusting the white man. After all he stole and cheated them out of their land, caused Indian groups to fight each other and disrespected Indians in general. The Europeans often hunted for sport not for food which killed off many animals. Many Americans and Europeans had massacred Indians and their wives and children.

Some Indians learned the culture of the settlers and lived in peace. Their reward was to be killed, starved or evicted from the very land that was promised them.


Wild Weather and weird things

Michigan has had its share of wild weather. In Oct 1762 Jonathon Carver reported that dense black clouds hung over the Detroit area and a rain with a sulphorous odor . Some of it was collected and used as ink. (Farmer p46) In the winter of 1779-80 hundreds of horses and cattle froze to death from the severe cold. (Farmer p46) In 1784 there was a very severe frost as late as March 6 and snow 6 feet deep. On Lake St Clare a mile from shore the ice was 3 feet deep and it did not disappear until May. (Farmer 46) An earthquake was felt with after shocks from December thru February. In 1816 ice formed every month of the year. In 1821 from 14-20 April 8 inches of snow fell. May 1, 1824 saw one foot of snow. 1828 had extreme fires across state as was very dry. In 1853 there was no rain until Oct 21. On April 20, 1871 ice ¼ inch formed and heavy frosts Aug 17 and 18. Sept and October had extensive fires across the state. In 1873 the temp went to 35 below 0. In1879 there was a hailstorm with hail as big as walnuts which fell in great quantity. In 1886 there was a 24” snowfall. In 1887 there was 107 degree heat. July 16 and 17. (Farmer p46, 47)

"You people don't know what snow is," grandpa used to say. "When I was a boy we had REAL snowstorms and we had to walk . . . yakkity yakkity yak. . . "

Well, chalk up one for grandpa. It seems he was right. The worst snowstorm in Detroit history came in early April, 1886, and dumped 24.5 inches of the white stuff on the city. Accompanying winds caused drifts up to 12 feet high in some places. The second worst storm in 1974 brought us a mere 19.2 inches. (Detroit News January 31, 2002 From The Detroit News: http://apps.detnews.com/apps/history/index.php?id=113#ixzz0gKc6UeTr Record High Temperature: 105/40.5 in July 1934. Record Low Temperature: -24/-31 on Dec. 22, 1872. Mean Annual Temperature: 48.6/9.2. Average Snowfall: 41.1 inches/102.75 centimeters.

Average Wind: 10.4 mph/16.64 kph. Precipitation 32.89 inches annual average.


First things first

Getting to the homestead site was a major task. You secured passage on barges and a ship to get to Detroit. You had to be extra careful there in a strange place where it was easy to get robbed or catch disease. A lot of folks caught diseases in Detroit because of the unsanitary living conditions at times. To get to Center Line one could come up the Red Run river. There were no roads or bridges only dense forest and swamps. Wagons just could not make it thru the woods or swamps or cross most streams.

The first pioneers worked very hard and long. It was a survive or not survive situation. They had to keep constant watch for raiders or hostile Indians.


The pioneers had to scout out places to find water and to build a shelter.

The courageous pioneers upon arrival first made quick shelters for protection from the wolves, bears, lynx, and other wild cats, mosquitoes, rain and cold. Survival was most important. All the time keeping alert against attacks by Indians or raiders.

Then they made a one room hut for better protection. This was followed later by a better made cabin which took about fifty to sixty logs all of which had to be cut by hand.


The cracks were stuffed with a mixture of mud, clay, grass, chips and sometimes with small branches that would fill in. The main idea was not so much for privacy but to keep out the millions of mosquitoes. Otherwise they would steal your blood and deprive you of sleep and worse of all give you ague and malaria. The roof was covered with bark and later cut wood or shakes. Sometimes the door was a canvas or cloth until boards could be cut to make a door. Oiled paper or skins substituted for windows but as time was important many had no windows at first. Later rocks and damp clay had to be secured for an inside fireplace.

Ground had to be made ready to plant corn and other crops. Corn was often the first crop as it required no plowing, little weeding, no grinding, and could be eaten green if necessary. If the property was in a forest the trees had to be girdled to let in sunlight. If the property was on a prairie the heavy sod was usually so thick it often took a team of six oxen or horses to break it with a plough. Remember it had been growing for hundreds of years. Of course what could not be grown in time had to be made up for from the forest in form of berries, nuts, and what animals could be hunted for food. (There were no stores anywhere close.)

Then the settlers dug wells, girdled the big trees, felled the smaller trees, cleared the brush, made tables, made chairs, tilled the land, planted crops, and drained wet areas. These were unbelievably though tasks. Keep in mind that they only had an ax and sometimes a small saw to work with. (No power equipment at all in those times)


Sometimes neighbors helped each other. The settler felled the trees needed then sawed the logs to proper length. A Cabin raising was planned and neighbors invited. Food and Drinks were served. The best axe men cut notches at the ends of the logs. A horse or teamwork brought the logs to the site. Logs were positioned. Some were slid up log ramps into position with forks and spikes. After the walls were done holes were cut for the door and window. Longitudinal roof poles were pegged on. Sometimes shakes were made for the roof sometimes that was left to the settler. (Willis F Dunbar 256) Inside the cabin a frame was anchored to a corner to support a leather or rope web to support a mattress bag to be filled with grass or dry leaves for a bed. A half loft often needed to be built for additional bed space. Furniture was often split logs with legs. As time went by better furniture was made from sawed wood. Tools were made of wood including racks, pegs to hang things on, three legged stools, plates, bowls, forks, spoons, wash forks, containers, barrels, wheels the outhouse, outhouse seat, fences, pens, show shoes, and sometimes even regular shoes. Occasionally there were gatherings a d celebrations and an old flute or fiddle was played.


There were no stores or fast food places and no neighbors. They had to make everything they needed themselves. Oh and let’s not forget the ever present mosquitoes. They were everywhere at all times. most pioneers suffered a bout with malarial fever (better known as the “ague”). One slogan warned: “Don’t go to Michigan, that land of ills. The word means AGUE, fever and chills.” There were many other problems. Imagine being awoke by the sound of your only pig squealing and to see it being carried off by a bear. At night there was howling of the wolves outside. It just was not safe to go outside at night in the early days. Bounties were paid for wolf scalps. The counties paid a lot of money for them.


In the period 1830-1860 settlers used oxen as primary draft animals because horses were not strong enough to break some tough grass matted soil and to pull stumps and hauling logs. Horses were better for lighter faster work.

And after the crops were growing of course everyone had to keep an eye on the crops as birds, squirrels, raccoons, bear, deer, rabbits, livestock, thieves and other animals could decimate a crop. Warren also had a bounty on crows. Corn could be picked at any time but wheat had to be cut and thrashed within a short time. Pioneers used a scythe (big knife on a long handle) with a basket on it to catch the cuttings. Two men one cradling and the other binding the bundles could harvest about two acres a day. (Willis F Dunbar 258)


Determination

The pioneers came with few tools and against terrific odds and met with determination what modern people would term impossible problems. They came with the clothes on their back and a few tools.

Imagine for a moment being left completely on your own in a forest wilderness with no: insect repellent, no water, no pop, no food, house or shelter no super markets, no showers no electrical power, no appliances, no telephone, no power saws, no gas heat, no running waters no cars, tractors or trucks, no machines, no radios, TV or entertainment, no canned foods, pop, beer, no paper products, no bottled milk, or other packaged foods, no street lights or even streets, no police, no coffee, no credit cards, no job, no ready made bread, no toilets no toilet paper or wards catalog. The courageous pioneers did hard work to fell the trees drain wet areas, construct log cabins, and till the land.

The Indians had held the power in the Northwest Territory but the Americans settlers and armies kept coming. They defeated the American armies several times until "Mad" Anthony Wayne took over. He was appointed by President George Washington as commander of the United States Army of the Northwest in 1792 with the purpose of defending American settlers from Indian attack. Wayne won against the Indians in 1794. But there is a lot more to it. Do a Google search on Little Turtle.

The Indian chiefs realized that the Americans outnumbered them and out armed them and they could not stop the Americans from coming in. After several months of talks a big feast was thrown at Fort Greene Ville in Ohio. The Indians were given fire water, $20,000 in goods and promised $9,500 more a year in exchange for giving up most of their lands. They were promised that settlers would not settle any more on the Indian lands above a certain line. They signed the Treaty of Greenville. Not only did the Americans break the treaty but they cheated, killed and moved the Indians off of the land that was agreed on as belonging to the Indians. And again the Indians had to fight back at a cost of thousands lives on both sides.


Eviction of the Indians Evicted from their own land

The Indians had proven themselves to be excessively brutal cruel savages who tortured, killed and scalped even women and children and wounded captives. Then they often became a threat to settlers. They wouldn't knock. The settler's wife busy in the cabin preparing dinner would be startled by looking up and surprise there would be standing a savage demanding to be fed or be given a gift or demanding ransom for some child they had kidnapped. They were often drunk and often killed others without apparent reason. Many settlers felt for good reason that the only good Indian was a dead Indian. Now in all fairness there were inexcusable acts of cruelty and murder performed by Europeans also but not usually to the extent of torturing people and killing women and children and taking slaves. The government decided the Indians had to go.

Outnumbered, out weaponed, beaten, out educated, killed, wounded, starved, cheated, the Indians moved or were moved with cruel force further west and “civilized” man took over. Some of these peoples had settled down to farm on land given to them by treaty and land that their forefathers had lived on for centuries. They had settled down as farmers and had started schools, built roads, and were living peacefully. But an Army of 7,000 men came and forced them to march a thousand miles in the bitter winter or 1838-9 without proper food or clothing. On one such march over 4,000 men, women and children died. This was unnecessary inexcusable cruelty. We need a standard of conduct for humans. The Golden rule would do. Don't do to others what you don't want done to yourself. This was not a time of war and these were peaceful people. Google Trail of Tears. The Supreme Court had even ruled in the Indians favor and Davy Crockett then a congressman had urged congress not to allow their removal, as did Chief Justice John Marshall, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.

How can a country which was formed on the promise “...that all men are created equal, and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among these the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness…" allow an Army to remove peaceful people from their homes and force them to march 1000 miles on foot in a bitter winter without proper clothing or preparation or food and water to their deaths? The word, civilized, what does that mean? Was that civilized behavior. If they could do that then can they do it now? In World War II we locked up Japanese people who had done nothing wrong. And a very scary historical observation, recently government has broken down doors of homes without knocking, without a warrant, ransacked homes, and removed home owner’s personal property. Also people have recently been held in jail without a hearing, in clear violation of the constitution and this practice is being allowed to continue. And they did not compensate homeowners for the losses. So you should ask can it happen here.


The dense trees, some about five feet in diameter at the base and over 200 feet tall, were cut for homes, fuel and crop land. The area of Center Line was gradually changed from mature forest and prairies to rural farmland. There ware areas of swamps and areas of meadows with few trees. SW Warren was cranberry swamp. These settlers still had no laws and no police except the sheriff but nearly everyone agreed to live in a civilized way. Crime was very low during these times. What crimes happened to isolated settlers was certainly lost to history because there were no phones, no 911 to call and no law and order around. But most people were too busy cutting trees, clearing ground, planting crops, building cabins, gathering food, cooking meals and doing chores to cause any trouble.


Beebe’s Corner of Warren sprouted a Tavern, trading post, distillery, a mill and later other businesses. It has been reported that the main industries in the early days of the village other than farming was making of bricks, saw mills, flour and feed mills, and wagon and buggy making.


After about 1818 we started to have rule by law. Constables were appointed. People accused were able to get a fair trial. James Fulton served as the first Macomb County sheriff from 1818-1822.

Soon the constitution was the chief law of the land that “establish justice insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense” that kept the promise of the Declaration of Independence of “liberty and justice for all” and “secured the blessings of liberty” was in effect. Courts were established. Laws were enforced.


Warren Township was first called Hickory Township probably named after General Andrew Jackson, known to his men as "Old Hickory." As there is no evidence that the area was abounding in Hickory trees.


Gerald Neil in his History of Warren states “On April 3, 1837 an undetermined number of citizens met at the home of Louis Groesbeck to organize the government of Hickory Township…This first meeting chose as its Chairman Avery Denison; as its Clerk, Samuel Gibbs; as Election Inspectors, Louis Beaufait, Alonzo Haight, and Jenison Glazier.” The first township officers were: Supervisor was Samuel Gibbs, Clerk Alonzo Haight; Justices of the Peace, Alonzo Haight, Lyman Rhodes, Samuel Gibbs, and John Barton. The town board was made up of Samuel Gibbs, Alonzo Haight, John Barton and Lyman Rhodes. There was no treasurer for the first two years. Also elected were three Assessors, three Highway Commissioners, two Overseers of the poor, three Constables, three Commissioners of Common Schools, and a Tax Collector. Louis Groesbeck was one of the overseers of the poor. Actually this meeting was out of order as the state directed it to be conducted at the home of Louis Chapotan in Orange Township. The state directed orange township to have the meeting at Louis Groesbeck's residence in Hickory Township. Later the state accepted the results anyway. The Township was divided into six road districts and an overseer was elected over each district. (Gerald Neil newspaper article Star Reporter May 9, 1957)


Have you been to Hog’s Hollow? How about Base Line?

Kunrod’s Corners became a stage stop between Detroit and Utica. Utica was called Hog’s Hollow back then. The horse drawn stage fare was about 75 cents to Detroit or Utica and double that to Romeo.

The farmers basically had two places to go, Church and market in Detroit to sell their crops and meat and to purchase anything they couldn’t make or grow. The State Road was full of ruts and either dusty or a sea of mud until it was planked in 1856. Quite a few years later it was also condemned after the planks rotted then paved with gravel.

After the businesses Kunrod’s Corners shifted to the Center Line Road at Church Road (Engleman) after the church was built, the community became known as Center Line.


There were sawmills located on 12 and 14 Mile Roads.


Howling of wolves were frequently heard in the old days.

Bears, Lynx and wolves would attack anyone too near. So if you had to be vigilant and careful not to disturb a mother bear and her cubs which was a deadly mistake.

Gerald Neil who was working on a History of Warren when I was a boy and who gave me a copy was an inspiration to many. He had access to the township records which were later lost. Much of what we know now about Warren Township is because he cared enough to write it down.

Gerald Neil stated the first public building in Warren was a pound constructed of logs 30 feet square and eight feet high in 1839. It had a strong gate which was kept padlocked. It was used to house stray animals and was located on Gabrel Yates’ farm. He held the position of Pound master until 1848. The pound was located on his farm near what is now Sherwood and Eleven Mile Road. (Gerald Neil 8)

Gerald Neil also points out that “Wolves, bears, and wandering live-stock were somewhat of a problem, and also crows. Bounties were offered for wolves, bears and crows and were paid regularly by the town Board.”

Times of Peace and Joy

Our area is situated near the Great Lakes which contains the largest amount of fresh water in the world. The climate is temperate and is mitigated by the Great Lakes.


There were times of peace and joy in a beautiful land abounding with deer, bear, raccoon, muskrat, beaver, woodchuck, chipmunk, squirrel, elk, bison, porcupine, lemmings, flying squirrels, red wolf, coyote, red and gray foxes, beavers, wapiti, woodchucks, bob cats, mountain lions, badgers, striped skunk, otters, mink, weasel, opossum, bats, birds, and other wildlife. The woods and meadows had many kinds of nuts, and fruit such as black berries, raspberries. The streams had many kinds of fish. Yet the archaeological digs show that many people died of battle wounds and by violence. Our area has also been a kind of no mans land between warring groups. What a shame that the human race could not live in peace. Certainly Michigan had ample plants and game to supply all of their needs. This is not unlike two little ant hills a few yards apart. One day workers ants from the separate hills cross paths. Before long the two hills send out armies of workers to kill each other. You can see them battling and locked in death grips for days until most are dead. What a waste. They are surrounded with Ample for All in a land of plenty which has everything they need. Yet why do they turn to needless violence and kill each other brutally when there is no need to do this in a land of ample for all. Humans need to learn to settle disputes with words not violence. We need rule of law and a standard of conduct for all humans. What do you students think? What is the basic law of our land?


As more settlers moved in land was converted from mature forest to farms. This caused much of the wildlife to move away. Much wildlife was hunted for food and sometimes for "sport".

Corrupt politicians allowed big companies to pollute the land air and water. The fish became unsafe to eat. Even today mercury levels in Great Lakes fish are at unsafe levels. Today thousands of people and animals are dying from pollution related causes.

Today the animals we have left are robins, blue jays, morning doves, starlings, sparrows, a few other birds, squirrels, a few raccoons, opossums, skunks, rats, moles, mice, worms, spiders and insects. The domesticated animals in the farming days were cows, pigs, chickens, goats, sheep, horses, oxen, turkeys but now all that is left are cats, dogs and some exotic pets.

Don't eat the fish they will make you sick.


Daily Activities

The Diary of an American Farmer in Michigan shows how life was in the late 1800s. It shows: what was done each day, where they went, what the family did, the weather conditions in Michigan, daily happenings, births and deaths that in some cases were not recorded by the government. It is a treasure of daily information of that era. Farm life in Center Line was dictated by the season and the weather. There were no weather forecasts. Weather just happened when it did with little or no warning. The winter forced everyone inside a lot more. Much time was spent tending the fire. The chores still had to be done. That means the animals had to be fed, watered and pens cleaned. Cows had to be milked twice a day. Wood had to be gathered cut and repairs worked on. Winter was a time to do spinning of wool or flax and to do weaving and husking. Trips to the outhouse were not fun in the winter. One certainly did not linger. Roofs and buildings had to be protected from ice and snow damage. The children still had to go to school.

Spring on the farm was welcomed as relief from the cold and from being indoors. Repairing the tools plowing and sowing were the big items. Hopefully you had enough seeds to do the job. The boys could get out of school if their dad needed them to work but often it was hard work. Cleaning and fixing were common.

Summer heat, no school, mosquitoes, summer fun weeding, cultivation and hopefully no one got sick. Late June strawberry season and sore backs from picking. July raspberry picking and preserving. Early August corn was ready to be harvested. Late summer was the most difficult time of the year with harvesting work. Often from sunrise to sunset. Fourth of July holiday community picnics, food games, fun, fiddle music singing dancing seeing that favorite girl or boy from other farms. Sometimes romance. Wild berries had to be picked.

Autumn harvest time for beans, potatoes, squash, cabbage, wheat, oats, rye, apples, and other crops. The housewife made preserves, jellies and preserved various foods for the winter. Various crops like potatoes, pumpkins, and apples were stored in the cellar. Corn had to be cut, shocked and husked

Late fall the children returned to school. The sleighs and snow shoes were prepared for use when the snow hit. Sometimes there were winter community events, ice skating, slding, spelling bees and social gatherings. Sundays there were church services. Some evenings there were singins.


Why were barns painted red? First in the old days barns were not painted at all. Later red paint was used because it was cheap and sid not show dirt as much as other colors.


The good of the Good Old Days: In general life was slower paced and less hectic than now.

There was in most families (not all) Love and Kindness and cooperation. It was thru cooperation that they survived. American settlers were for the most part "civilized." They had respect for each other and acted toward others as they would want to be treated themselves. We call that the Golden Rule. Although the Indians did sometimes kill and torture prisoners we cannot blame that on primitive culture. The Germans and especially the Japanese tortured, raped, starved to death and even killed people by slow mutilation. Look at the history of what the Japanese did to the Americans during world War II. The Japanese excelled in thousands of unspeakable atrocities to innocent persons including women and children. The Germans starved and butchered several million innocent nonviolent people including women and children and cremated them in ovens. A good source of information is the documentary movie by Ken Burns called The War available at video rentals or PBS. I have talked to many survivors of the Holocaust. Now around the world new holocausts are happening and they are trying to put out propaganda that the holocaust did not happen. Ask the young Japanese what their country did in World War II and you will usually find they don't know enough about their country's terrible atrocities to fill a thimble. And these types of atrocities are still being allowed and practiced today.

The Air and Water were Pure.

People worked harder physically but were usually happier.

There was singins and barn dances and preachins and barn raising Bees, and plowin and quilting Bees. If you read Daniel Stewart's Diary there was even a farmers traveling band.

If you visited a neighbor you would most likely be invited for dinner.

Train trips on the old Steam trains; Less pressure and stress; Few if any bills to pay

No telemarketers; Good Hunting with lots of wildlife


What was bad about the Old Days?

Good medical knowledge and care were nonexistent. No hospitals.

No police, fire, public safety protection. No ambulances or paramedics; No 911; No telephones

Prior to the American Revolution, people were ruled by brute force rather than by Laws

Weapons had to be kept nearby for protection.

There was a general lack of knowledge about health and many other important areas.

There were few if any stores and little choice of things to buy.

Most people were farmers and had to raise or make nearly everything themselves.

They usually had very little money to buy things.

There were few conveniences that we take for granted now.

No electricity or electric appliances, No TV Radio or Internet

No washing machines or dryers or electric irons or electric heaters.

No toilet paper, No flush toilets' One had to go outside to cold outhouse even in winter.

But some people were rich enough to have a chamber pot which eliminated the trip outside at night.

It was unwise to travel or go outside the safety of a cabin at night. There were wild cats, wolves, bears etc. roaming around at night. Our pioneers often reported howling at night from outside.

Most cabins were dark inside at night because people did not have candles or oil lamps or fireplaces.

The best place to be at night was in your bed as primitive as it was.

If pioneers had domestic animals they had to build a barn as soon as they could to protect them.

There were no cars, buses or airplanes; No fast food places or restaurants.

No TV dinners, freezers, refrigerators or microwave ovens.

No gas, oil or coal heating. You had to build the fire first to get warm.

And just how was that fire started without matches?

Cabins were drafty, and often did not have windows.

Many did not have fireplaces so there was no heat or drying fire inside.

Cabins usually had dirt floors and were at ground level which meant that insects, spiders, mice, snakes and other vermin shared the living quarters.

Beds were primitive, small and in general not comfortable. They often consisted of piles of grass or straw. This may have been soft but it meant that you had to share your bed with various other creatures. Usually with four, six or eight legs. Later a stuffed mattress was placed on top or a suspended lattice work of rope. This meant a lot less sharing with other creatures. Beds often had canopies. This was to prevent creatures that inhabited or traveled in the roof which may have been made of straw or wood from falling onto you during your sleep. Husband and wife slept on a twin size bed. The man often insisted on "his" husbandly rights. Women often had to bare and raise 8 to 15 children all without the help of a doctor.

Discipline in pioneer families was extremely strict. Children did what they were told. If they disobeyed they were severely punished.

Roads were dusty or muddy trails navigated by foot, horse or wagon or were impassable.

No movies or places of entertainment; No hamburgers, pizza, McDonald's, Taco Bell etc.

The average person owned two pairs of clothes one for Sunday.

Underwear was generally non existent for men and no bras for women.

There were no heated showers or baths. If you were lucky to own a tub it was usually about three feet in diameter and the whole family took their baths in the same water with the father usually going first.

Shoes were awful for the most part. All were hand made. Most were home made.

Newspapers were not home delivered; Magazines for the most part did not exist.

There were no libraries in our area and most people could not read or write.

There were few if any jobs available you worked your farm or starved and

many people worked long hours and still had little food.

There was no welfare, food stamps or Medicaid.

There ware no medications, painkillers, pills to relieve problems.

Would you want to trade your present life for that?


As a historian and war veteran, I feel responsibility and duty to tell the truth. One function of history is to learn from it. According to experts most Americans now are not physically fit and most of the soldier age men are untrained, uncaring and unwilling to defend the country. This means that we would be easy pickens in a war. Look at what has happened to other peoples when they became weak. Examples look at the Romans, and the British Empire. Think the military can protect you. But there isn't much US military left anymore. The Army has been largely disbanded and if any crises occur they have to rely on weekend warriors (The National Guard) who are now stationed in Iraq. During a terrorist attack or war condition there are not enough police to protect 99% of the local citizens. Who does that leave to protect your family? We need to be aware of what is happening and take steps to be prepared.

If you appreciate your freedom and way of life thank a veteran. Families living in our area had members like mine that had fought in the Revolutionary war, the American Civil War, World Wars I and II, Korea, Vietnam. Both St. Clement Cemetery and Warren Union Cemetery have veterans buried there. Heronoius Engleman for whom Engleman street was named was a civil war veteran.

Center Line has a street named after Paul Hazen a holder of the Silver Star who died in war. Clem Grobbel fought in Russia. See the story on Mike Grobbel’s wonderful web site. 7,484 women served in South Vietnam, Nearly 60,000 Americans died because of it. 2,650 died from Michigan. Many state that it was a terrible waste. Nearly 10,000 Americans have died in the just few years due to Radical Islam and as an observer I must comment that it appears that there is no end in sight. Indeed many of our children may have to fight a war here in Michigan to preserve their freedom.


Market

As soon as the farmers raised enough to feed their families they found a ready market in Detroit for their excess crops and meat. They had horse drawn wagons and drove to Detroit using either the State Road or if the roads were dry they would follow the best trail over to Gratiot. There were several farmers markets in Detroit. Eastern market was founded in 1841.


Michigan became a State 1837

January 26, 1837. In Washington, DC, President Andrew Jackson signs the bill making Michigan the nation's twenty-sixth state.


Warren became the 36 square mile square Hickory Township also in 1837.

Shelters were replaced with log cabins which were replaced by better and better houses.

Gerald Neil in his History of Warren states “On April 3, 1837 an undetermined number of citizens met at the home of Louis Groesbeck to organize the government of Hickory Township…This first meeting chose as its Chairman Avery Denison; as its Clerk, Samuel Gibbs; as Election Inspectors, Louis Beaufait, Alonzo Haight, and Jenison Glazier.” The first township officers were: Supervisor was Samuel Gibbs, Clerk Alonzo Haight; Justices of the Peace, Alonzo Haight, Lyman Rhodes, Samuel Gibbs, and John Barton. The town board was made up of Samuel Gibbs, Alonzo Haight, John Barton and Lyman Rhodes. There was no treasurer for the first two years. This information is from the Village records and also recorded in Gerald Neil's Book.

The legislature gave to Orange Township the east five square mile sections of Hickory Township (Warren). But they were restored on April 2, 1838. These were sections 12, 13, 24, 25, and 36.

Township Government

The “Town Board” consisted of a Supervisor, Clerk, Treasurer and two Justices. All terms of office were for one year (except Justices whose term was for four years) In 1943 the town board terms were changed to two years. Elections were held on the first Monday in April at the Annual Meeting. At these meetings the citizens could change any law of the township except those set by the State legislature. Voting was done by hand or voice, since no tabulation of votes is shown until 1848. All candidates ran as individuals in the early years, and just when partisan politics first entered is not recorded. (Gerald Neil 7) Meetings were held in various homes as there were no public buildings. At least twelve Annual Township meetings were held at the home of George Corey from 1844-1858.


Abel and Sarah Warren Pioneers (Thanks to Brandon and Challis Warren)

Abel Warren was a pioneer Christian circuit preacher and war hero who became particularly beloved to the early pioneers and was held in very high esteem so much so that the area near the future village of Warren was called Abe’s circuit or Warren’s circuit. The area was later named Aba Township and on March 26, 1839 it was renamed Warren Township.

“I have fought a good fight. I have finished my course. I have kept the faith.” Thus reads the stone of the pioneer Christian preacher and war hero who married more of Warren’s pioneers and spoke at more of their burials than any other person. He was Rev Abel Warren born August 3, 1789 and died Sept 5, 1862. His great grandfather came across on the Mayflower. His Grandfather Gideon Warren was a Lieutenant in the French and Indian Wars, joining in 1748. “He was one of Ethan Allen’s Green Mountain Boys” in Vermont. He became a Colonel of the 5th Vermont Regiment in the Revolutionary War. He was wounded in the battle of Ticonderoga.

Abel Warren enlisted and served his country as a soldier in 1812 holding the rank of Sergeant. He was seriously wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Queens town Heights. Having near death experiences in the war and as a British prisoner made him aware of the value of life. He became a Christian in 1817 and joined the Methodist church. In 1824 he and his wife Sarah became some of the first pioneers in Macomb County settling just north of Warren. He became a deacon and later an elder in the church and was the first man to preach in Macomb County, and “no doubt preached at more funerals and married more couples than any other man in the county of Macomb, as when well he was always ready at a moment’s call for either, frequently leaving the hayfield and going ten or fifteen miles to attend a funeral”, on foot as horses in those days were very scarce. “As a pioneer local preacher, he was abundant in labors, traveling on foot at times twenty-four miles on the Sabbath and preaching three times, and that after a hard week’s work on the farm, and preaching as regularly as any stationed, preacher, and spending most of the winters in special revival work, in Macomb, St Clair and Oakland Counties, in which hundreds were converted, thus helping to lay the basis on which rests the magnificent, moral and social superstructure of this beautiful region of country.” “He was genial and sympathetic, could weep with those that wept, or rejoice and smile with the cheerful and happy, and thus was a welcome guest, either at the wedding festival, and the sick-bed or funeral obsequies. He had nine children, four sons and five daughters.” Two of his sons entered the ministry a third has an important position in the church. Abel Warren had settled in Macomb County even before Warren Township was settled. The area was all wilderness and abounded in wildlife. While pausing in the woods for a moment of prayer and some local wolves started howling so he held prayer meeting with them. “One Sabbath evening, while passing through the woods over an Indian trail, he saw just ahead of him a huge bear. The animal seemed inclined to dispute the right of way; without apparent fear, the traveler picked up a stick, saying, ‘If you be good, I will, but otherwise we will try titles.’ The bear stepped aside and the Elder pushed forward on his journey.” From the History of Macomb County. Leeson 1882 p 739.

“The first or second sermon ever delivered in Lapeer County was preached by 'old Father Abel Warren,' as he was familiarly called. Mr. Warren belonged to the M. E. Church and was the pioneer preacher of a large track of wilderness, embracing this and several adjoining counties. He must have been a man of many sterling qualities of brain and heart, judging from the success of his heroic labors and the affectionate remembrance in which he is still held by the surviving pioneers.” History of Lapeer County p 33.

“Rev Abel Warren, of precious memory, was the first minister to find his way to this town, and probably preached the first sermon in town. For several years did this noble veteran of the cross visit the people of the town from his home some twenty miles away in the town of Washington. It is safe to say that no minister since that time has had the love and esteem of this people more than did this faithful and devoted man. In the year 1855 he was preacher in charge on the circuit, which was nearly the last of his ministerial labors. He has long since passed to his reward, and his memory is precious with those who knew him.” History of Lapeer County p 101.

Historian George Fuller in his book Historic Michigan states that Rev Abel Warren settled in Shelby in the summer of 1824 and lived there for thirty nine years. “Being a local preacher, he made his own appointments, and was at liberty to respond to any call he might receive, where the people desired his services, and such was the demand for them that there was hardly a settlement in eastern Michigan where he was not called at times to preach, either on the Sabbath, or at the funeral of some departed friend. I doubt that if there has ever been another minister in Michigan so universally respected and beloved by all classes, and people of all creeds, as was Abel Warren, during the thirty-nine years of his life work in Michigan.” He was the first man licensed to preach in the State of Michigan. History of Macomb County Leeson 1882.

Rev Abel Warren was a circuit rider who traveled around Macomb County preaching the story of Jesus, marrying many pioneers, speaking at many pioneer funerals and helping to start several churches. He became known as Elder Warren. His warm personality made him many friends. He ministered to the spiritual needs of Warren’s early settlers. (from Leeson's History of Macomb County-1882) It is believed he was instrumental in the formation of the first Methodist church of Warren in which his son was one of the earliest temporary pastors. (Went on to pastor other churches) This was the first church of any denomination formed in Warren. The circuit riding or walking pastor met with pioneers in their lonely cabins and not only brought guidance in manners and morals but also often news. Sometimes he may have brought books. Of course he performed marriages, spoke at funerals and baptized believers. It is no wonder he was held in very high esteem by the early pioneers.


It is highly possible that Warren was named after this well traveled and well loved man.

Abel Warren was well loved and spoken very well of in several historical references. He preached about Jesus in many places around Macomb County and Warren. Barns sometimes had to be used as there were no other buildings big enough where people could meet. He may have performed more marriages than any other local pioneer preacher. His certificates read "By me (signed) Abel Warren Minister of the Gospel".


Historian Wesley Arnold located some of his descendants and they feel that since he was so well respected in the area and that family legends are such that it is very likely that the citizens wanted to honor him by naming the township after him. First by calling it Aba’s (Many of the pioneers spoke different languages and Aba was a mispronouncement of Abel’s circuit) then later by calling it Warren’s circuit which got shortened to Warren.


They were the pioneers. Most important these were decent, hard working people who first had to face life in the wilderness without any modern things we call necessities. They had to first build a protective shelter to protect themselves from the animals that could kill them. This had to be done before nightfall. They had to obtain water and food from the wilderness as there were no stores or restaurants just miles of woods and swamps with no roads or civilization. They had to be on constant guard against attack not only from animals but also from murderous humans. Then they had to clear land, plant crops, create tools, build better shelters for themselves and their animals. There was no electricity, no machines, no tractors, no trucks or cars, no plastic or paper products. All cooking had to be done outside rain or shine until a chimney and log cabin could be constructed. A roof had to be constructed that could keep out the rain, cold and protect them from the hoards of mosquitoes.

A bed had to be built from native materials and raised off of the floor.

Indeed there were hundreds of things that had to be done to create a working farm. It took several years of real struggle. And they succeeded.


They worked to create a better life for their children and grandchildren.

They created schools and churches. They taught good values to their children. Everyone had to pull their own weight. There was no welfare or food stamps. You worked or starved. Sometimes you worked and still did without.

They were law abiding, conscientious decent people that treated others as they would want to be teamed themselves. And they brought no harm to another by their actions or inaction.

They should be respected and honored.


Who was the Warren of Warren Michigan? It had to be our Abel Warren.

This does not take away from the fact that the Warren City council acting without the above knowledge voted that it was generally considered that it was named after a hero of Bunker Hill Joseph Warren who never set foot in our area and was not even known to our pioneers who lived here. Joseph Warren had died 64 years earlier. Joseph Warren was born in Roxbury, Mass. 11 June, 1741; died in Charlestown, Mass., 17 June, 1775 in the battle of The Battle of Bunker Hill in the United States Revolutionary War for Independence. On 18 April, observing the movements of the British troops, Dr. Warren dispatched William Dawes, and Paul Revere to sound the alarm to the American people. He was chosen as president Provincial congress, and thus became chief executive officer of Massachusetts under this provisional government. On 14 June he was chosen second major-general of tile Massachusetts forces. On the 16th he presided over the Provincial congress. The next day upon hearing that the British troops had landed at Charlestown, he rode over to Bunker Hill. As he was rallying the militia, he was struck in the head by a musket-ball and instantly kilted.

Both of these Warrens were war heroes and had honorable lives and both deserve to be remembered. But which one was actually the one they named the Township after is not important. We think that Harold Stilwell favored Able but a big problem in history is that people fail to write it down. We know that the pioneers admired the local Abel Warren. We are reasonably sure that they did not even know about Joseph Warren. So let’s honor both of them. There is room to do this. So let the Warren name honor two great men both named Warren. And let it honor a great pioneer family. It is the right thing to do and it is what the pioneers themselves would have wanted.

In 1838 the five sections that had been taken away were restored and Hickory Township was renamed Aba Township. Eleven months later Aba was allowed to adopt the name of Warren Township. It is most likely that the citizens wanted to honor Abel Warren's circuit by naming the township after him. First by calling it Aba’s (Many of the pioneers spoke different languages and Aba was a mispronouncement of Abel’s circuit) then later by calling it Warren’s circuit which got shortened to Warren.


The population of Warren Township was 249 in 1837, 337 in 1840, and 421 in 1845. The new immigrants were mostly farmers, from New England.


The following was excerpted from Leeson's History of Macomb County, Michigan, pp.852ff. “The township of Warren was erected under the name of Hickory March 11, 1837. Under an act approved April 2, 1838, all that portion of Macomb known as Sections 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36 in Township 1 north, of Range 12 east, was set off from the town of Orange and annexed to the town of Hickory. Under the same act, the name of the township of Hickory was changed to that of Aba. It retained this name until March 25, 1838, when it received its present title -- Warren. The first town meeting was held at the house of Louis Groesbeck, April 3, 1837, with Avery Dennison, Moderator; Samuel Gibbs, Clerk; Louis Beaufait, Alonzo Haight and Jenison F. Glazier, Inspectors of Election. Samuel Gibbs was elected Supervisor; Alonzo Haight, Clerk; Louis L. Beaufait, Collector; Harris Corey, Loring Hawley, L. L. Beaufait, Assessors; Peter Gillett, John H. Barton, Loring Hawley, Commissioners of Highways; Northrup Jones and Louis Groesbeck, Overseers of the Poor; James N. Bruce, with Beaufait and Corey, were elected Constables. Avery Dennison, Sam Gibbs, Lyman E. Rhodes, Commissioners of Schools. “


The village of Warren in this township was settled at an early day. It is twelve miles southwest of Mt. Clemens and fourteen north of Detroit. Its location is within a half mile of the D. & B.C.R.R., which renders the place a suburb of Detroit. It is a fine agricultural section, which is devoted to farming, market gardening, grain, vegetables and fruit. There are Methodist and Lutheran churches, a district school and a steam feed mill and foundry in the hamlet. Its conservatism in respect to population is remarkable. The census returns of 1880 credit it with being the center of 150 people. Similar returns for years past have accorded to the little hamlet precisely the same number. Among the early settlers were the Groesbecks, Joseph Jerome, Harris Corey, Joseph Mosho and George Bolam, many of whom have left families, members of which still reside in the township. Among the business and professional men of the village are John Ames, Milo Ames, Oliver Barton, J. L. Beebe, C. Davy, William Cole, D. L. Case, Frink & Murthum, L. Groesbeck, Silas E. Halsey, John Hartman, Rev. A Harwood, W. Helzenger, E. Lawrence, F. McCall, William McMullen, Judson C. Mason, E. Mores, C. Sanderson, Edward Tharrett, G.B. Walker, G. Whitten, Rev. William Young.”

Warren Village had wooden planked sidewalks and the streets were lit with gasoline lamps that required the services of a lamplighter. A.C. Lyons and Frank J. Licht both served in this capacity. They were replaced with electric lamps in 1913.


A stage ran from Detroit to Utica. Beebe’s was about half way. Mr. A Bielman ran The Warren Hotel located at the northeast corner of Mound and Chicago roads.


In 1849 Gottlieb and Susan Bunert bought the 80-acre farm now known as the Bunert-Weier Farm. They built a log cabin. The brick house was built in 1876, the barn in 1883 and the carriage garage in 1892. They farmed the land, raised livestock and had their own sawmill. This was Warren’s last working farm. On the land behind the farm was a long flat hill that long ago may have been an Indian burial site. The family also told Wesley Arnold that after the farm was subdivided some of the new neighbors complained about the farm guinea hens and chickens making noise in the morning. The neighbors wanted to shut down the farm. The Weier family patiently asked them didn’t they not see the chickens running around, and hadn’t they heard about the rooster going cockle doodle do in the morning when they were in school and so why did they buy property next to a working farm that had been working for over 100 years and not expect a few sounds in the morning.


By late 1840’s the government land was soon sold out and owners of large tracts of land were reselling their original grant lands.

Transportation

Transportation in our area for most of its history was by foot or show shoes and canoe. For thousands of years there were no cars, or vehicles. There were no roads at all. There were foot trails thru the woods. Horses and other livestock were introduced in our area after 1818. Horses were utilized until the late 1930s.

A stage ran from Detroit to Utica in the early 1800s. Beebe’s was about half way.

The State Road was located on present day Sherwood road. The little settlement located near what is now Ten mile road and Sherwood was called Kunrod’s corners. The corners became a stage stop between Detroit and Utica. The horse drawn stage fare was about 75 cents to Detroit or Utica and double that to Romeo. By 1830 there was a stage line running from Detroit to Romeo and another to Ft. Gratiot. The stage line followed the State Road which followed Sherwood. Kunrod’s Corners at ten mile road was a stop on this route. Beebe’s corners was next.

First railroad Line in the West. In 1836 the Erie and Kalamazoo railroad line reached Adrian Michigan and had stage connections to other areas. Several stage lines began around this time.

Soon railroads were built locally. A rail road was built along the State Road running from Detroit to Shelby and later to Utica. It was started about 1838. At first it had wooden rails, poles strapped to logs then later iron rails. The single railroad car was pulled by horses. Later iron straps were placed on top of the wood. But once in awhile they would get caught curl up and pass thru the floor of the train car injuring passengers. Later the train cars were armor ed so that the straps could not hurt passengers. This was improved by the Detroit and Bay City Railway company who laid rails and began to run to Bay City about 1860. The Warren stop was called Spinnings Junction. It was just south of 14 Mile Road. Later steam engines were used. After the New Your Central took over they placed a station at Chicago Road.

The Grand Trunk on the east from Detroit to Port Huron went thru Warren in 1859. Thomas Edison worked as a newsboy and candy seller on this line. He also sold the first newspaper he printed on the train called the Weekly Herald.


The huge engines were a wonder to behold and their whistles could be heard for miles. The coming of the railroad prior to the civil war just speeded things up. Although the closest station was at Beebe's Corners (Warren) at Mound and Chicago Road, the train would stop if signaled.

1880-1914 Steam tractors had wide use. Herman Weir had several in use on his farm. One ran a saw mill. It was fascinating to watch these big engines run.

Then the Trolleys, were followed by Cars, Aircraft, Spacecraft Inter-urbans were planned but the only one that got into Warren was one that ran from Detroit to just north of Ten Mile road on Van Dyke. They ran about once an hour and fare was five cents. A lot of growth in southern Center Line was due to the great service these inter-urbans provided. They ran from 1901-1930.


Some of our residents may have left Michigan to try to make a fortune in the California Gold Rush and some moved to other states or further north in Michigan. There was a quite large turn over of land ownership in Center Line . Some of the early pioneers were rather crude individuals who did not like company. Some folks preferred the frontier while other preferred to settle down and farm. Davy Crockett said when you can see the smoke of your neighbors chimney its time to move.


Statewide fire

In the Fall of 1871 there was a drought over much of the Great Lakes. Debris from logging and land clearing was tender-dry. Wells went dry, crops failed, streams shrank.. On October 8 a great wildfire struck the town of Peshtigo, Wisconsin killing 1300 people and the fire spread to Michigan. It burned over 1,100,000 acres. Another fire destroyed Chicago. Additional fires across the state resulted in at least 200 deaths. Ten years later another fire struck the area between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron which was completely devastated. The Fire burned for over a month. Over 2 million acres were burned and hundreds of families lost everything. Farmers reported that the skies were dark with smoke for several days.


In 1872 Alex J Groesbeck was born in a farmhouse near 12 mile and Mound. He later went on to become the 30th Governor of the State of Michigan in 1921 and the first three term Governor. He was noted for "bringing Michigan out of the mud" by initiating the state's modern system of highways. M-97, also known as Groesbeck Highway is named in his honor. He died in 1953.

Village of Warren

The little farming community wanted to have more services than the township was providing so they decided to form a village. Charles Groesbeck also wrote the village charter and was paid $3 for his services. Beebe’s settlement grew and was incorporated as Warren Village in 1893 encompassing a one square mile area from 13 Mile Road to 14 Mile Road and extending one-half mile either side of Mound Road. Doctor John D Flynn was elected as the first president. Charles Beebe was Clerk, and Robert Tharrett was Treasurer.


Fire and Police

There was no fire department or police department for nearly all of the history of our area. Only since the forming of a village was there any fire protection and that was next to useless until water mains with fire hydrants were activated. Until that time if the oil lamps or candles used for lighting caught the house or barn on fire all one could do was get out and try to save a few valuables. Everything you had would be destroyed. And there was no insurance. There were no phones to call for help.

The village hall was built in1922. It is located at 5961 Beebe at Flynn. It first housed the offices of the village officials. It served also as a voting place. On the west side of this building was a small wooden structure that was sometimes used as a jail. The Warren Volunteer Fire Department was housed in an east addition to this building in 1946. The west side of the building housed the Warren Community Library from 1949-1957. In 1992 when the fire department moved out it was turned over for use by The Friends of the Warren Library, The Village Historic District Commission and the City of Warren Crime Commission. In 1938 Chrysler Corporation donated a fire truck and the first fire hall was built (in 1939) next to the Township Hall at Van Dyke and 11 Mile roads. Two firemen were hired. From a modest beginning of volunteer fireman with no equipment to a volunteer fire department with two full time men Warren’s fire department grew to one of the best in the country.

In 1939 Warren's first fire station was built. Vern Lumex and William Van Hulle were hired as fireman. Salary was $130 a month. They still had volunteer firefighters. In 1951 two more fire halls were built. In 1955 the Nine Mile and Federal fire hall was built followed some time later by the fire hall on Twelve Mile Road by Hoover. In 1957 William Burr was hired as Fire Commissioner.


Gradually the roads and sewers were improved, new public buildings built, more fire stations built, fire equipment purchased and staff hired.


Police protection which had been under County Sheriff moved to Warren Township control in 1950.

Locally elected warren constables assisted the Sheriff until 1927. In the early 1920s the Sheriff established a Warren branch office with one and sometimes two regular officers and a few special deputies. In April 1927Henry Kuhn and Charles Krause were the local sheriffs officers. The Town board appointed ray bush as Township Officer to with with the Sheriff's deputies. In 1937 Max Bookout and George Collins were appointed as our first Policemen at $175 per month. Collins was appointed as Warren's first Police Chief. He also had special police John Munro, John south and William Romano. (Gerald Neil 21) There was a dispute about whether or not the township could have police. After an opinion by the Attorney General the Board voted on April 20, 1938 to disband the Police. But on May 5, 1938 the Board appointed Henry Kuhn and Charles Krause as Officers. On Jan 12, 1939 these two men were transferred to the Macomb County payroll and Edwin Sherrill and William Van Hulle were hired as officers. In the troubled 1940s supervisors acted as ex-officio Police Chiefs. Vern Lumex was borrowed from the fire Department to be Police Commissioner. William Romano and Alfred Maletta served as Police Chief later in the 1940s. (Gerald Neil 21) In 1951 Police commissioner was Stanley Hamacher a retired Police inspector from Detroit moved into quarters at 9 Mile and Memphis. (Gerald Neil 22)


There was no law and order for thousands of years. It was rule by brute force. Anyone could do whatever they wanted to others including attacking them, killing them, or cutting off parts of their body (such as cutting off the scalp to sell it and leaving them to die of the pain and infection). There was no punishment for these crimes. Your property could be stolen or burned and you had no recourse. Only after 1818 was there some semblance of law and order but there was only one part time sheriff for the entire county for many years. Villages were formed partly to provide law and order for citizens. The villages usually appointed a part time constable but still there were no phones to call for help when needed. As Warren and Center Line grew they created police departments, fire departments and court systems. This worked very well and our area had very low crime and fire statistics. However if law and order is not maintained by local police and effective justice by judges and government, law and order can break down and has already in many parts of the world.


Crime was relatively low in Warren Township until after World War I. Then with the automobile it was easier to get away. People had more personal belongings. Even then few people locked their house or car. People had been taught personal responsibility as children and most practiced it and the golden rule.

At this time there was a growing awareness of public health issues and government started taking steps to protect the public.


Liquor

Fire water was a major cause of the defeat of the Indians. The Michigan Territory controlled liquor traffic. “Sale of intoxicating spirits to Indians, minors, servants, soldiers and prisoners was forbidden as well as were all Sunday sales.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 88) Sellers were also required to be licensed. By 1830 Temperance societies began to form. In Detroit there was one bar for each 13 families by 1934. Then the State constitution of 1850 changed that. In 1853 the Democratic legislature passes a law prohibiting the manufacture of intoxicating beverages and the traffic therein. The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in Michigan in 1874. A Prohibition Party was created. Red Ribbon societies were formed. All of these worked for prohibition. The state legislature rescinded the prohibition law in 1875.

There were several different organizations in Macomb County. The Eighteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined "intoxicating liquors" excluding those used for religious purposes and sales throughout the U.S.), established Prohibition in the United States. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919. It was the only amendment to the Constitution that has been repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in1933. During this time the Detroit area was a hotbed of illegal activity. There were many speak-easys even in Warren. Clem's Pour House was a speakeasy that was open 24-7. You could not get in unless you were known and trusted by someone inside. “As many as 25,000 illicit saloons, or “blind pigs”, operated in Detroit and did a $215 million business. The New York Times accurately proclaimed that Detroit was the “Rum Capital of the Nation” and that liquor trafficking was Michigan's second leading industry. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 228)


Our Libraries

Both Center Line and Warren public libraries were started when local citizens got together collected books and found a place to place them. In Center Line a group of men formed the Men's Club of Center Line. This was in 1928 before there were any Rotary or Lions clubs etc. They accumulated about 500 volumes. The library was housed in the basement of the Center Line Community Church which later became the Presbyterian Church. It was housed later to several stores then to the above pictured Center Line recreation building. Finally it moved to its present building.

Warren’s first library came about at the Joiner House which was built in 1895 by Robert and Eliza Joiner. In 1935 this is where Warren’s first library was located. (in the front parlor) Through the efforts of a local group of three women (Miss Elkin, Mrs. Parrott and Mrs. Zorn) the Warren Community Library was formed. The committee managed to get 516 books donated to it and borrowed another 200 from the state. Three community women headed up the committee and Chris Anna Zorn donated the use of her Sunday parlor for the use of the library. In 1936 the village council accepted the library as an official village institution. By 1940 it had moved to larger quarters twice and grown to a collection of 5,000 books.


Poverty

Back in the old days most people worked supported themselves on the farm. Except during crop failures most people in Michigan did not suffer for lack of food, clothing or basic needs. Granted they did not have much in worldly goods but they did not feel poor. And most were fairly happy. There was some poverty but that was usually due to physical or mental conditions, illness, disasters or occasional laziness. But most neighbors would help out a sick neighbor. There were poor houses and orphanages. Most people supported themselves in their family groups.

When our area went into an industrialized, then service economy people were no longer on a farm where they could grow their own food. Jobs were dependent on several other factors. We have more homeless today and more poverty than we ever had before. This is partly because of corporate greed and an alienated society in which everyone seems to be in it for themselves and hardly anyone is looking out for the welfare of others. Look at Kmart. The executives milked the company day with huge pay increases and benefit packages and had golden parachutes that gave them a future lifetime of security at the expense of the poor minimum wage worker. Then after the big executives got out they brought in a hotdog who sacked the company and sold it off leaving workers without jobs or benefits. Now banks were given a huge taxpayer bailout and our reward is to have out interest rates go thru the roof. Mortgage companies refused to work with homeowners and force them to have to give up their homes causing homelessness. Then the Congress bails these selfish bankers out. The whole cycle of selfishness has caused record unemployment and loss of homes in Center Line . Meanwhile politicians and executives have given themselves raises.


Lighting

Of course early pioneers had daylight and moon light and often nothing else except fire light. Candles gave out a good amount of light often enough to read by or for general home lighting. The first lamps were oil lamps of a flat nature often called whale oil lamps. Early lamps used a variety of fuels. Early lighting fuels consisted of olive oil, beeswax, fish oil, whale oil, sesame oil, nut oil, etc. Naphtha lamps used paraffin. These were followed by lamps with wicks. These were improved upon and came in many shapes and sizes. Gas lights were used to illuminate streets. Kerosene lamps came in about the time of the civil war. Acetylene lamps were popular for outside use because the flame was resistant to wind and rain. Another name for these was Carbide lamp. They produced good bright light by simply adding drops of water to calcium carbide. These are used by minors, cavers and were used on old car headlights.


Developers and Builders Pipers Farms

Most of Warren’s homes and properties were sold by developers and builders. Pipers Farms led the way in Southern Warren known as Baseline. He bought property along Van Dyke and opened a sales office where the interurban could stop. Thanks to the wonderful work of Jack Schram who researched transportation in our area we have some pictures. He also donated most of our street car pictures.


Our Churches

The first church services were conducted outside. The services consisted of meditation and sometimes dancing and storytelling. Religious rites were practiced by native peoples for thousands of years. Settlers held religious prayers in their cabins and had outdoor get-togethers prior to the building of churches. Pioneers also met together in cabins or made the long trek to Detroit before they built their own churches.

There was a Methodist church group in Warren before 1850.

The First Methodist Church of Warren was started about 1853 and a log chapel built. This building was replaced in 1857. It is now the oldest structure within the Warren Village area. This church first stood to the east of the Warren Union Cemetery on the side of the Creek Road (Chicago Road). It was moved to its present location at Seventh and Fillmore in 1884.

About 1850 a group representing the Warren Township outpost of St Peters Evangelical Church of halfway met in the old Methodist Church across mound Road. In 1864 they organized St Paul Evangelical Church. The current impressive building was built in 1894. It had a steeple that towered 35 feet above the belfry but lightening destroyed the steeple in 1921. Records were kept in German just like the sister church St Clement church that had records in German and Latin.


By 1875 the Warren Beebe’s corners had two churches The Methodist Church and St Paul's Church. Note there is a Beebe's corners in Richmond where even more Beebes settled.

In 1853 the people decided they wanted a catholic church and in 1854 the first of four St, Clement churches was built on Van Dyke between Church Street. Before this little wooden church was built on Church Road (now Engleman) and the "centre line" residents had made long rides to St. Mary's in downtown Detroit or Assumption on Gratiot at Six Mile Road. In bad weather the roads were almost impassible. The wagons had no heaters in winter. The community known as Kunrod’s corners was centered around State Road (now Sherwood) and Ten Mile Road which was a dirt or mud path. The local citizens who were mostly immigrants from Germany, Ireland, France and Belgium, decided that then wanted a church in the nearby area. The St Clement Parish was established in 1850 and met in local homes. An actual church building was not constructed until four years later. The local people decided that they wanted a church to be built on the west side of the “Centre Line”. This was the center road of Warren Township (now Van Dyke). They felt that they would not be able to get to church in the spring and fall when the roads turned to mud seas, especially over by Kunrod’s corners as this was the lowest area near by the creek. Also more residents lived nearer to the East side location. Peter Rotarius donated two acres of his land on the land on the west side of the “Centre line”. Next to him was Johann Weingartz who donated an acre. Later Mathias and Josepf Miller donated two acres of land they had been given as payment for work they had done for Joseph Cramer. The community voted to establish on the East side of the "centre line." Additional properties were donated and several parcels of land were raffled and the money used to buy six acres of the Cramer-Clemens farm. The parish may have been named St Clement after Mr. Clemens. The parish boundaries were from Woodward to Lake St Clair and from Eight Mile to Fourteen Mile Roads. In 1854 a simple wood frame church building was built. In 1857 a one-room school was erected. The parish was served by visiting priests until 1858 when Father Henry Meuffels became the first resident priest. In 1868 an addition was put on to the wood frame church.


In trying to read the pastors writing as I worked on this history, I was told that they went to a different school of handwriting. I don’t know about that but they sure sometimes got careless about good penmanship. When all of the letters look like undotted i’s than something is wrong. Plus I had to buy two Latin books to figure out the meanings as the records are in Latin. Father William Hendrickx became the pastor in 1868. He spoke several languages. In 1880 a new brick St Clement was built based on the plans for the Sacred heart Church in Detroit. Its dimensions were 136 feet by 54 with five entrances and fifteen stained glass windows. It cost $18,000. Later the frame church was removed in order to build a new brick school with two classrooms and an auditorium. In 1890 the new Pastor Father Kramer convinced three sisters of Providence of St Mary’s of the Woods, Vigo County Indiana to come here to teach.

They were replaced in 1892 by the Sisters of St. Dominic from Racine, Wisconsin. In 1896 an upper story was added to the small schoolhouse and was quickly turned into a hall where school children put on plays and held recitals.

The Official St Clement’s history states that picnics were held across from the church in Engleman grove and that a platform was built for dancing and a German Band played music.

By the year 1916, 182 students were enrolled at St. Clement School. That number rose to 600 students by 1920. The pressing need for a new and larger school led to the construction of a two-story, 16 room brick and concrete school. It had a high school and auditorium with a 1,000 seat capacity. The first high school graduating class, in 1926, consisted of one person Ester Delia Schnoblen (Smith). In 1952 Father Timothy Murray became pastor of St. Clement and ground was broken for a new school to accommodate 1,300 students. In 1960 work was begun on the present modern church with 65 foot-high vaulted ceiling, gables forming a cross, hundreds of panes of stained glass and seating capacity for 1,600. It also has a 130 foot bell tower.


Some of the oldest structures in Center Line lie hidden inside some of the older houses. One would find hand hewn beams and may be wooden pegs.


The Community Church in Center Line was built in 1924.

The Bethel Methodist Church on Packard in Center Line was built in the 1920’s.

The Trinity Lutheran Church is located one block south of Stephens and one block East of Van Dyke at 8150 Chapp in Warren.


History of At Anne Parish (From the church web site)

In August 1943, four mothers from the Village of Warren area went to the Chancery Office to see Archbishop Mooney regarding religious instruction for the children of the village. The Archbishop assured them that instruction classes would be started, but could give them little assurance of a parish due to the number of priests then engaged as Chaplains in the War

In September 1943, instruction classes were begun in the Sisters' convent on Van Dyke, the Mother house of the Slovak-Dominican Sisters. In the Spring of 1944, Mr. Norman Halmich, then Postmaster and Storekeeper, displayed in his store a petition to be signed by Catholic parents for religious instruction of children in Warren. In late June, 1944, the Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart, four in number, opened a vacation school in an empty store on Chicago Road. This, too, was inadequate, in space, so the vacation school was mainly held under the trees in the Village Park. In the Fall the same Mission Helpers returned to Warren weekly for Saturday instructions, held in the Village Barn. In December, a Christmas Program was conducted in the Barn for the parents and children. It was at this meeting that discussion arose regarding the possibility of establishing a parish in Warren. Enthusiasm ran high, with the result that a total of $2,500.00 was donated for a parish. The money was forwarded to the Chancery Office for future use.

In March of 1945, announcement was made from the Chancery Office that a parish was to be established in the vicinity of Mound and 13 Mile Roads. Fr. Frank J. Walsh was given the assignment.

Among the men attending the next meeting at the Doctor's home was the late Mr. Norman Halmich who graciously donated five acres of land on Mound Road at Arden Avenue. Later on, foreseeing the future need of the parish he donated another five acres adjacent to the original five, which now comprises the present parish property.

The First Church was the Warren Village Barn, which was purchased for $14,000. The first Mass was said in the remodeled barn Easter Sunday April, 1946. At this time there were 225 families.

St. Anne Parish originally comprised twenty square miles, from 12 Mile to 16 Mile Roads, and from Dequindre to Schoenherr. Due to the enormous growth of the City of Warren, other parishes were established. Ground for the new Church was broken on April 5th, 1964, and the twenty-year dream became a reality. In the summer of 1977 plans were made to renovate St. Anne Church.


St. Edmund Parish (From the church web site)

Fr. McGoldrick began his pastorate by immediately organizing the St. Edmund Parish community. Sunday masses were held in the gymnasium of Charwood School on Schoenherr north of 11-Mile Rd. With the assistance of priests from the Passionist Monastary in Detroit. St. Edmund Parish grew to approximately 2,500 families, necessitating the aid of an assistant pastor and a new church. Fr. Joseph F. Janes was appointed the first assistant. A permanent church was built and its dedication took place on April 19,1969. Approximately 2300 families are registered at St. Edmund’s. Mass is celebrated daily at 9am except Saturday. There is a liturgy on Saturday at 5:30pm and on Sunday at 8:30am, 10am and 12 Noon.


In 1872 Alex J Groesbeck was born in a farmhouse near 12 mile and Mound. He later went on to become the 30th Governor of the State of Michigan in 1921 and the first three term Governor. He was noted for "bringing Michigan out of the mud" by initiating the state's modern system of highways. M-97, also known as Groesbeck Highway is named in his honor. He died in 1953.


1851 sewing machine invented and by 1860 100,000 were sold.

1852 cast iron stoves were becoming common.

1854 the first of four St, Clement churches was built on Van Dyke between Church Street

1861 bicycle,

In 1863 Joseph Buechel built the first general store at Ten Mile and State Road in Center Line

1867 typewriter. 1878 practical light bulb, 1884 fountain pen invented

By 1875 Beebe’s corners had two churches a school and several businesses.


The State Road was located on present day Sherwood road. The little settlement located near what is now Ten mile road and Sherwood was called Kunrod’s corners. This became a stage stop between Detroit and Utica. The horse drawn stage fare was about 75 cents to Detroit or Utica and double that to Romeo.

In 1850 the population of Warren Township was 700-750. There was even quicker growth as population figures show. 997 in 1854, 1335 in 1860, 1468 in 1864, 1938 in 1870, 2214 in 1874, 2401 in 1880, 2384 in 1884, 2423 in 1890, 2592 in 1894.


In 1889 The Gurton Hoard built a home which still exists as the Lyle Elliott Funeral Home located at 31730 Mound. This building was a day’s buggy ride from Utica to Detroit and was used as a hotel and later as a residence, boarding house, doctor’s office and apartments.


1893 electric irons were the first commonly available electric appliance,

1890 18.9% of all women worked outside the home. 40.5% of single women were in the paid labor force, but just 4.6% of married women worked outside the home.

1900 Sewing needles could be bought at the general store.

1900 Among American women, 20.6% worked in the paid labor force. 43.5% of unmarried women held jobs; 5.6% of married women worked outside the home. Among wage-earning women in America, 50% were either farmhands or domestic servants.

1900 Two wheel bicycles were beginning to be popular

1904 tractor, 1904 ice-cream cones

1904 population of Warren Township was 2498

1908 Model T Automobile, 1916 Radio tuner, 1908 first electric vacuum cleaner for home use,

Ladies the bra was invented by Mary Jacob in 1913. these replaced corsets.

1914 electric washing machine,

1914 canneries produced many food products in tin cans

1916 refrigerator cost $900 then by 1920 10,000 were sold, by 1925 75,000 were sold.


1910 Center Line and Warren soon had electricity and phones

Better and better houses replaced log cabins and first frame houses.


Locals

There are several locals included in Warren Township. The biggest of course is Center Line, which is a mile and one half rectangular in the very middle of Warren Township. There was Base Line, Van Dyke, and Fitzgerald. Outside of the Warren area was Halfway (now East Pointe), Hogs Hollow (Utica)

Base Line - Post office in area bordered on the south by 8 Mile Road; annexed by Warren when it became a city in 1957.

The following partial list is from: Macomb County Extinct Towns, Railroad Stops, & Place Name Changes compiled by Cynthia Ladensack Reference Librarian Mount Clemens Public Library.

Beebe’s Corners - Settlement in Warren Township located south of Red Run Creek near Chicago Road between Mound and Van Dyke.

Bath City Mt Clemens

Burk's (Burke’s) Corners - Earlier name of Armada.

Butts - Interurban stop located on the Oakland / Macomb County border in Washington Township at Washington and Dequindre Roads.

Cady’s Corners (Cady) - Small town in Clinton Township at Moravian Drive and Utica Rd settled in 1833.

Campau - Rural post office near Mount Clemens opened in April 1899 and closed in May 1900.

Casino - Village in Clinton Township at Canal and Clinton River Roads near the site of 1700s Moravian settlement; later called Frederick.

Centre Line - Original spelling of Center Line.

Clintondale - Name proposed when Clinton Township sought to incorporate as a city in 1967; the proposal failed. See also Clinton Valley.

Cottageville - Nickname of the village of Warren.

Dalton’s Corners - Small settlement in Warren Township located between 8 & 9 Mile and Van Dyke.

Delaney -Interurban stop in Washington Township, between Mound and Van Dyke south of 29 Mile.

Disco -Small town in Shelby Twp at 24 Mile &Van Dyke; also called Utica Plains Whiskey Center.

Dodge City - Name proposed when southwest corner of Warren Township sought to incorporate as a city in the 1950s; see also Fitzgerald.

Eagle Pointe - Settlement located on a point of land projecting into Lake St. Clair in Lake Township (see also); platted in 1916, it was absorbed by the village of St. Clair Shores in 1925.

Fitzgerald - Name proposed when southwest corner of Warren Township sought to incorporate as a city in the 1950s; see also Dodge City.

Glenwood Railroad stop in Warren Twp at Chicago Rd between Mound & Van Dyke; also called Oakwood.

Gray’s Mills - Later name of Clifton.

Halfway - Earlier name of Eastpointe (Post office 1897-1924; Village 1924-1929). Also an interurban stop on Gratiot at 9 Mile Road.

Harlow - Earlier name of Utica (1829-1833).

Haskin’s Mills - Sawmill founded in 1828; earlier called Ashley’s Mills.

Hickory Township - Original name of Warren Township (1837-1838); later called Alba.

High Bank(s) - Earlier name of Mount Clemens (until 1818).

Hog's Hollow - Earlier name of Utica (1820s).

Honeyoe - Earlier name of Armada

Hoxie or Hoxey Settlement - Earlier name of Romeo; also called Indian Village.

Huron River - Earlier name of the Clinton River.

Indian Village - Earlier name of Romeo and first post office there.

Ingleside - Interurban stop on Gratiot near 14 or 15 Mile Road.

Jefferson Township -Name under which Sterling Township was founded existed from 1835 to 1838.

Knight’s Crossing - Interurban stop located at 29 Mile and Van Dyke.

Lake Shore - Village on shores of Lake St. Clair near 8 Mile Rd; incorporated with St. Clair Shores in 1925.

Lamb - Interurban stop in Washington Twp, between Mound & Van Dyke, near 28 Mile.

MacDougallville - Earlier name of Utica (1817-1820s).

Milk River - Interurban stop on Jefferson between 8 and 9 Mile Roads.

Moravian Village- Village in Clinton Township along the Clinton River at Harrington and Moravian. Established June 21, 1782 as New Gnadenhutten.

Oakwood -Railroad stop in Warren Twp at Chicago Rd between Mound & Van Dyke; aka Glenwood.

Spinnings-Railroad station in Warren Twp at 14 Mile Road between Mound and Van Dyke.

Van Dyke -Village located around Van Dyke north of 8 Mile Road; platted in 1917

Warren Station - Railroad stop located at 10 Mile Road and Sherwood.


Van Dyke

As described just above was an unofficial village located around Van Dyke just north of 8 Mile Road. It was platted in 1917. Mr Piper sold numerous lots and named the streets after cars. The citizens of that village tried to incorporate three times between 1924 and 1935. Two moves were made to annex to Detroit but Detroit did not want them. (Gerald Neil 17)


East Detroit Annexation

Warren township services were so lacking in the 1920s that citizens living next to East Detroit sucessfully got themselves annexed to East Detroit. This removed a strip 1200 feet wide from from 8 Mile Road to 9 ½ Mile Road. To asdd insult jto injury Warren had to pay East Detroit $2,984 in unexpended taxes. (Gerald Neil 17)


Pioneer Cemeteries

Our area had many burial places. For thousands of years persons who died were left to be eaten by animals. Europeans also often left the dead to be eaten by animals. After 1818 settlers buried their dead in shallow graves not far from where they died in the back yard, without a casket or stone marker. After 1850-1855 most of the dead were buried in one of three cemeteries:


Oldest Warren Cemetery

The Bidell-Green-Weier Cemetery, The Warren Union Cemetery or the St Clement Cemetery. After 1880 many were buried at Mt Olivet. There were almost no grave stone makers locally until after 1855. Many were buried without a casket or marker.

Both the St Clement and Warren Union cemeteries date from 1850-1855 but both appear to be preceded by the Bidell-Green-Weier Cemetery.


In Warren Township the oldest recorded cemetery burials were at the Warren Union Cemetery, followed by the St Clement Cemetery. But between the A Bunert Farmhouse and the C Bunert Farmhouse Just N of Martin Road and West of Bunert Road, was an Indian mound which was reported to be 18 feet tall. I think it is more likely that it was 18 inches high. It was most likely an Indian burial mound but this is uncertain. This mound existed prior to the settlement of their farm in 1849. It had become overgrown with weeds and shrubs so much that it was not particularly recognizable as an Indian mound and was missed on the early surveys. The settlers certainly were not in the habit of building mounds.

The family reported that Indians came around often in the early days. They would read the sun like a clock and would disappear when the sun reached a certain angle. Indian artifacts have been found in the area. Local legends also give credence to the Indian mound theory. This area is generally flat and there is no logical geological explanation for a sand mound given the flatness of the surrounding area. Also considering that there was at least evidence of forty human remains removed from this site and that no archaeologist was called in to evaluate the site so that there may have been other evidence that was certainly overlooked. Also consider that at least two dump truck loads of remains were trucked out of the site before it was discovered that at least one of them contained human bones. The family reported that other families sometimes brought relatives there for burial. I talked with one of the older Weiers and was told that their grand parents told them of a man who carried his dead baby for several miles to have it buried there as it was the only cemetery he knew about. Around this landmark early settlers from several families buried their dead.


They probably did not know or care if it was an Indian mound or not. Whether or not it was will probably remain unknown as the evidence was destroyed and removed. Early farmers often raided Indian mounds to get pots. There was a road that led from Martin road directly to this cemetery. I have it on an aerial foto and showing the mound in the 1960s. I shall call it the Bunert-Indian Cemetery for shortness but it was supposedly registered on the State of Michigan registry as the Bidell-Green-Weier Cemetery. It is now located on the southern half of the Briarwood school property. I saw a 8 mm movie in about 1970 showing three burial vaults in which bones were being piled to be buried at Clinton Grove. I spoke with the undertaker who performed the last removals. I found newspaper articles. And weirdly also found reports of ghost sightings believe it or not.


By the 1960s it was overgrown with Lilac shrubs that waved in the breeze. The Lilacs were planted by other families to mark the burial places but had become overgrown over the years. The family was forced by economic reasons to sell the property. The school district would have taken the property anyway as they wanted to build a school there. It was transferred about 1966. Mrs. Ida Weier told the school district that it was a burial ground and wanted all remains to be treated in a Christian manner. Bunert family burials were removed and reinterred at the Clinton Grove Cemetery in Mt Clemens. There were no other stone markers and all of the wood markers had rotted away and the little stone pebble markers were displaced so it was not particularly recognizable as a burial ground. But she also warned the principal that it was a burial ground. He called her a crazy lady. During construction a skull and other human bones were discovered. (Per Tri City Progress 4 14-1967)


In May of 1969 children playing in the school playground discovered more human remains. Imagine the look of shock on the teachers face when they brought the remains into the classroom. Later the principal went over to Ida Weiers house and wanted to question her about the remains. She reminded him that he had branded her a crazy lady for even suggesting that it was a burial ground. One contractor dug a load of dirt for fill dirt and dropped it off on someone’s property. The homeowner receiving the fill dirt found sculls and human bones and called the police who contacted the contractor. Imagine asking for fill dirt and getting human remains dropped off in your driveway. Wow was he in trouble.


It wasn’t very long when that kids were also showing off human remains from the mound. That finally got the officials attention. The school district wanted everything hushed up so no archaeologists were called in and in fact it was them who hired a funeral director. The school certainly did not want anyone to discover that this was anything other than a single family burial plot. But human remains of at least 40 humans were removed from what was left of the mound and the rest of the area was not explored. Historian Wesley Arnold states that he saw movies of this mound being excavated. The funeral director mentioned that Theuts, Greens, Hessels, and Schoenhers were probably buried there. So it was for sure a pioneer cemetery. Whether or not it was also the remains of an Indian burial ground had not been determined by scientific investigation and will never be never known as the evidence has been removed and scattered. And even though a few bones were removed the balance of the remains of those pioneer families remain underground. This historian does not believe in ghosts but must report many of sightings over the years by homeowners adjacent to the Briarwood School property. Several families and even children have reported sightings and strange happenings there. As a historian I am honor bound to tell the truth.


This historian feels that a plaque should be erected at least on the on a bench on the grass next to the paved path that goes around the ball field that would and mark this as at least a pioneer cemetery. See historian Wesley Arnold's CD of Warren-Center Line Records which has pictures of all of the old grave stones in both Warren's Union Cemetery and St Clement's Cemetery. These two cemeteries hold most of the remains of the pioneers of Warren. The Warren Union Cemetery has 325 graves that date from the 19th Century. St Clement's has over 1,500 burials prior to1943


Cemeteries Forgotten

Cemeteries were started, used then sometimes forgotten. Even the soldiers who died in the massacre of Bloody Ridge are now lost, unmarked and forgotten. Many of the old cemeteries are unmarked and forgotten. Even the old stones get weathered and become unreadable. Note Brick sealer can stop that for a while. In the old days family members were often buried within a few hundred feet of where they died because they did not have a wagon or horse to carry the remains. Burials were often on the family farm. In most of history coffins were not even used. This was because the family or what was left of it did not have the wood, tools, skill or strength to make one. With epidemics often family members were laid side by side in common graves. Often several family members died within a short time. What was left of families simply piled stones on the grave site. Years later under new owners the forgotten graves became again farmer’s field. There were few if any gravestone makers available to families. Many families were in shock and extremely poor. Many people died of conditions we have cures for now. Many children and women died as a result of childbirth. Many children died young.

There were burials on farms and unknown locations prior to this time some without so much as a casket and since tools were poor many were in very shallow graves or mounds. The Warren Historical Society was just recently informed about a grave next to a house on Chicago Road. Most burials in the old days were made within a few hundred feet of where the person dies because families did not have the resources to build caskets or transport the remains and often there were no cemeteries nearby.


Warren Union Cemetery

The Warren Union Cemetery was established in 1845 when pioneer farmer Peter Gillette sold a parcel of land to eighteen families as a burial ground. The Warren Union Cemetery Association was organized in 1852 to maintain the 2 1/2 acre cemetery. This is the oldest cemetery in the city. Wesley Arnold photographed all of the stones and the pictures are included for you free on a CD. An index of this cemetery is on Mr Arnold's CD which can be obtained from Friends of the Library.


St Clement Pioneer Cemetery

The Center Line St Clement parish cemetery was established about 1853. Many pioneers of Warren are buried here. Wesley Arnold has pictures of all of the pioneer’s grave stones available on his CD. He took pictures of every visible stone. Some stones are buried below the grass. Many of the old stones are weathered, crumbled and not visible anymore. Many are probably now underground. Wesley Arnold photographed all of them so that future generations will have access to the information on them. He also scouted around and found a walk thru of the cemetery done in the 1950’s. It is amazing how many stones have disappeared. Those stone readings were indexed and typed by Wesley Arnold and the walk thru information was added and that information is on the CD.


What are you doing in the cemetery with that shovel?

Wow did he get some strange looks as he walked around the cemetery with a shovel and his camera. He almost got locked in when Chief Norman Smith locked the gate. He looked at Wes a little funny when Wes explained that he was just digging up a little history. Actually Wes was one of Chief Smith’s volunteer firemen and Norm is a great source of knowledge about Center Line. He even told me how during some years more people were removed from this cemetery than were buried.


Don't walk on Graves

It seemed that back in the old days you did not walk on graves. You had to stick to the aisles. A good reason not to walk on graves was that your body weight might cause your foot break the rotting cover of an old casket and you literally could fall into a grave with your foot going into the coffin and crushing the corpse. There might be a horrendous smell also. Many burials were in winter and dug by hand in frozen ground and sometimes weren’t always dug too deep. Also there was no caretaker as the church was too poor to pay one so families were responsible for maintaining the grave sites and the aisle next to it. Some did not which led eventually to the cemetery being greatly overrun with vines, weeds and underbrush so thick that people could not easily visit their loved ones or properly conduct burials. The pastor probably felt at that time that it was a huge disgrace so he encouraged people to bury their loved ones elsewhere such as at Mt Olivet (opened in 1888) down Van Dyke or, Mt. Elliott (opened in 1841). These cemeteries were maintained properly. He also encouraged people to have their loved ones removed and buried there. So some years more people were removed from the cemetery than were buried there that year. By the way cemetery caretakers were not always careful about not bumping stones as they mowed. Sometimes stones would fall down or get pushed into the low trough that was made when an old wooden casket finally caved in. Note that weathering on stones can be slowed down by cleaning them, coloring in the letters then applying coatings of brick sealer. Wesley Arnold has recorded all of the stones in six cemeteries so that the record of the stones will be preserved even if it becomes unreadable.


Families should look after the grave sites of their ancestors because it is their responsibility, and they should record the record on the stones. Some people have reported that visiting the family site sometimes gives them a feeling of happiness and peace. People could make it a short visit and also make it part of a family outing such as visiting a cider mill and park. This could be a chance to tell the children about the family history. Where were your great grand parents during the civil war? Which side did they fight on? Where did their parents come from?

Where are your great great grand parents buried? Do they have markers?


Detroit Memorial Park Cemetery was established in 1925.


Who were streets named after.

Answer almost always was a real person or pioneer family.

Cunningham in Warren was first called Michigan Ave.

Engleman Street named after the settler us Engleman a civil war veteran.

Dequindre ave was named for Major Antoine Dequindre; land owner and veteran

War of 1812; 1850. Also Dequindre Street - Named for the Dequindre family ribbon farm.

Gratiot Avenue - Began as a Native American hunting/traveling path.

It's named after Gen. Charles Gratiot, the engineer in charge of the project.

Groesbeck Highway - Named for former Michigan Governor Alex J. Groesbeck.

Groesbeck launched the highway project during his term.

Hayes Avenue - Common street name. Probably named for President Rutherford B. Hayes

.John R road was named for large land owner and prominent citizen,

John R. Williams; 1835. He was a general in the Territorial Militia, a member of the board of trustees at the 'new' University of Michigan and the first elected Detroit mayor in 1824.

Mound Avenue/Road was named for a large mound located in an area near the mound and seven mile road. According to Judge and historian Don Mankowski no bones were ever found there.

Peter Katz Street named after the settler of the same name.

Van Dyke avenue was named for prominent citizen and Mayor, James A. Van Dyke; 1885

Minke, Weingartz, Heisenberg, Busch, Wieland, Katz, were all streets named after the settlers of the same name. We are not sure of many others. The developers may have used their relative’s names.

The streets named after cars were names chosen by the developer of the land.

Arsenal was named for the Tank arsenal.

Paul G Hazen Drive named after soldier Paul Gordon Hazen who was the son of Adelbert G. Hazen (Center Line Mayor). Paul was the first of our young people to die in Viet Nam.


Who's Who of Center Line and Warren

Who's Who of Center Line and Warren is a long document under separate cover that lists general information on persons who lived in our area. It is hoped that this will help families in the future learn about their relatives. This is based on historical research. Information on living persons is very limited due to privacy concerns. This is a work in progress and more persons will be added as families donate information. If you want your self or ancestors listed please contact  Daniel@macombhistory.us


Wars

If you appreciate your freedom and way of life thank a veteran. Families living in our area had members like mine that had fought in the Revolutionary war, the American Civil War, World Wars I and II, Korea, Vietnam and other wars. Many of these veterans went thru terrible hells on Earth of indescribable horrors. Many suffered severe pain and suffering for the cause of freedom and to preserve and secure our way of life. My dad was in the Normandy invasion and saw many die. I served in the Vietnam era. Both St Clement Cemetery and Warren Union Cemetery have our local veterans buried there. Center Line's Paul G Hazen Drive was named for one of our native sons who was awarded the Silver Star for its bravery in Viet Nam. Many others gave their all also. Clem Grobbel fought in Russia. See the story on Mike Grobbel’s wonderful website. 7,484 women served in South Vietnam, Nearly 60,000 Americans died because of it. 2,650 died from Michigan.


We should honor our Veterans both living and dead

We should honor these brave men and women as real life heroes. We must create a better world for our children and for future generations. We must learn from history. Perhaps we can put an end to needless violence, suffering and dying by preventing wars from developing. After all wars mostly start because a language nonunderstanding, disagreement or from greed.

Us veterans had the courage and guts to stand up and defend our freedom and way of life. Many gave everything they had including their lives often after great personal pain and suffering.

Are people today willing to defend our country now?

Those who aren't are not worthy of living here and should get the hell out!

Thousands or Americans and additional thousands have died in the just last few years due to Radical Islam. Americans need to get their head out of the land of fantasy and into reality or else their children will die as slaves. First it must be said that we are not against peaceful people but are against those who support: killing, rape, the marriage of girls under age 17 without their or their mother's consent, the denial to women the same human rights as men, the denial of freedom of speech, of the press and of religion. Perhaps the worst is yet to come as there are thousands of Muslim terrorists in training right here in the USA and hundreds in Michigan. Muslim terrorists think they earn a ticket to paradise by killing innocent women and children. They are here among us so we all must be strong and ready to defend our way of life as they are planning to create an islamic state here and dump our US Constitution. They are having babies in large numbers, are recruiting members from prisons and bringing everyone they can from around the world. The burden of maintaining the peace and freedom will soon borne by all not by just a few groups of National Guard Troops forced to repeatedly go into combat. Many of us veterans are fed up those who dodge their responsibility and many of our youth are becoming a nation of uncaring who are unwilling, and unable to even defend their community in times of need. Also we have about 60 million foreign born aliens among us many with little to no allegiance to America. Will they help defend us if needed?


History of Wars in which our men died

For Thousands of years mankind has lived here. Although their main occupation was survival in the wilderness their secondary occupation seems to have been warfare against other tribes. They often did not speak each others language and so could not negotiate a truce or talk their way out of danger. Because of not understanding each other the spear or knife are used rather than words. There were thousands of killings and butcherings. They showed no mercy. They killed and tortured and took slaves. There was no rule of law rather just the rule of brute force. There were times of peace but they could never be sure when or where another tribe would attack. Would you want to live during that time? Can violence happen today? Yes it is happening today around the world. Thousands lose their lives every year. And history teaches us that unless we are prepared and can defend ourselves it can happen here. Over 3000 Americans have been killed by Muslim terrorists right here in the USA. And there are hundreds in Michigan.


1600-1818

With the arrival of Europeans in the 1600s a lot of things changed but not the fact of wars. Soon the Indians had knives, tomahawks, swords and guns. Both the French and English bought scalps and gave the Indians scalping knives and firewater (whiskey) They told them that the other Europeans, Indians and settlers were against them and wanted their land. They gave the Indians license to kill and steal the settler’s belongings including pots, guns, valuables, crops and livestock. There was an increase in tribal warfare and killing of settlers from 1600 to 1800 in Michigan. Michigan was a dangerous place for a settler until after 1818. Thousands of Settlers and Indians were needlessly killed. Both were nearly annihilated from SE Michigan.


US American Revolutionary War 1775-1783 221,000 mobilized, 36,000 died in action or from wounds, illnesses or accidents. over 12,000 wounded, 16,000 POWs.


US Civil War 1861-1865 Total Mobilized 2,456,000. Dead 360,022 North, 258,000 South. Wounded 455,175. POWs 426,000 Michigan contributed over ninety thousand men to the Union forces. This was about 23 percent of the male population. Of course some were too young or old. Over one half of the military age population served in the Union army. Also serving were 1,661 blacks many of which served in the first Michigan colored Infantry. Later this was known as the 102nd Regiment. These troops were subjected to ridicule by lot of residents. False negative stories were circulated about these honorable men. These men served honorably and helped win the war. Anyone who ridicules solders unfairly such as this should be sent with them into battle. 200 of Michigan's American Indians also served honorably as did many immigrants who were not citizens yet. Anyone who puts down our soldiers is not fit to live in our free country. This created a labor shortage at home. The most famous Michigan soldier was George Armstrong Custer of Monroe. He commanded the Michigan Calvary Brigade.

The Civil War and most of those deaths could have been avoided had intelligent reasoning prevailed. Even the Detroit Free Press called for a negotiated settlement.

In 1861 Virginia tried to organize a peace conference to avoid war by finding non violent solutions to the nation's problems.. The just sworn in governor of Michigan and the Michigan legislature emphatically rejected the invitation to attend the conference. “Senator Chandler Michigan's most virulent Republican legislator, concurred with this action and wrote Blair that a civil war was desirable because the blood of patriots and tyrants was the “natural manure” of the Tree of Liberty and that “without a little bloodletting” the Union would not be “worth a rush.” (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 107) I wonder if this senator who was so in favor of war went into battle or just send the young men of Michigan to become manure. 15,000 Michigan soldiers gave their lives to preserve our country.

Women prepared bandages and clothing for soldiers. Newspapers were avidly read daily. Labor saving machinery was greatly needed and used but often hard to find. Women often worked in the fields. The war actually brought prosperity to Michigan farmers. To solve the labor problem immigrants were brought in. Farmers produced bigger crops of wheat, corn, oats, rye, hops, and corn sorghum.

Heronoius Engleman for whom Engleman street was named was a civil war veteran. Others are buried in St Clemens Pioneer Cemetery and Warren Union Cemetery. Those in The Bidel Cemetery are lost forever. Michigan troops fought in all major engagements in the Civil War. Fourteen thousand died from wounds and sickness. (Kern 34) At home men, women and children worked long hours while their sons, husbands and fathers fought and died. “Between 1860 and 1870, rural population and acreage of improved farm land increased by about 45 percent-- thanks in part to passage of the Homestead Ace in 1862.” (Kern 35) Wool production increased. Production of wheat which was Michigan's largest cash crop almost doubled. (Kern 35) Beginning around the time of the Civil War and continuing forward to the present labor saving machinery and later office automation improved productivity. At first it was horse drawn machinery, then steam powered then gasoline and diesel powered machinery. That was followed by electric and electronic machinery.


Governor Austin Blair declared in January of 1861 South Carolina’s secession from the union. On the evening of April 12, 1861, the manager of the Detroit Theatre rushed on stage and announced that Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, had been bombarded by Southern forces. A momentary silence hung over the theater, then the orchestra struck up “Yankee Doodle” and the audience rose as one and gave cheers for the Union.”*


When President Abraham Lincoln called for 1000 troops Michigan responded with 750,000. The first troops to leave the state were the First Michigan Infantry, which arrived in Washington, DC, on May 16, 1861. According to tradition, President Lincoln greeted the regiment, the first to arrive from a western state, with “Thank God for Michigan.” Eventually, ninety thousand Michigan men—and a few women saw service in the Union Army during the war. Michigan’s total included about 1,500 African Americans who served with the First Michigan Colored Infantry, later the 102nd U.S.

Colored Infantry. From the war’s first big battle, where Michiganians covered the retreat of a defeated Union Army , to the capture of Confederate president Jefferson Davis four years later, Michigan's boys in blue saw action in all the war’s major battles. Seventy Michiganians were awarded the Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest honor for meritorious service. By 1865 the Civil War was over but not without sorrow for those who died for their beliefs. The Battle of Gettysburg, for example resulted over 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, captured or missing. Many laid there for days dying with no pain killers and no help. Several Center Line and Warren residents served the cause of freedom.

To find out more about Michigan in the Civil war visit Don Harvey's website which plays historical music while you learn. http://www.michiganinthewar.org/cwmireg.htm

History of the 4th Michigan Infantry Regiment "Grand Army of the Potomac" 1861-1864

The 4th Michigan Infantry was one of the must feared and respected Union regiments who fought in the Civil War. They served in the Grand Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1864. The 4th Mustered into service on June 20, 1861 at Adrian, Michigan. They mustered out of service on June 29, 1864 at Detroit, Michigan.

Slavery was practiced in times past mostly by the Indians between tribes. Occasionally American settlers if they were lucky were made slaves as opposed to being scalped. 10,000 Americans were made slaves of the British which was one of the major causes of the war of 1812-1815. Sadly slavery is a repeating fact of history, occurring in most times and as much as we all abhor it, and it doesn’t appear to be going totally away. It is here in Warren at present mostly amongst aliens.


Spanish American War 1898 Casualties 69,292 58,949 from disease, 1,282 from combat. POWs 30,000


Philippine Insurrection 1898-1902 220,000 Mobilized, 24,064 Killed. 200,000 died of Disease/Hunger


World War I " The War to End All Wars"

1914-1918 Over 65 million people mobilized, 8 million people killed, 21 million wounded, 7,750,919 POWs. From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages. “Between April 1917 and November November 1918 135,000 Michigan men served in the Armed Forces; 5,000 died...and 15,000 were wounded. (Kern 48) Sacrifices were made at home. “One unforeseen consequence of World War I was that while it halted European immigration, the industrial demands for labor began to attract migrants from the American South. (Kern 49) ”though no more than 60,000 Afro-Americans were in Michigan in 1920, this number was over three times the total in 1910. By 1930 the number had risen to 120,000. (Kern 50)


World War II "The War to End all Wars"

1937-1946 Mobilized 178,048,566. Killed 404,997 USA, Deaths over 16,000,000 combat, Civilian deaths 6,300,000. POW deaths 1,500,000. From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages. 613,542 men and women from Michigan were to serve and 15,000 were to die in World War II. (John Kern 57) The Detroit Arsenal in Warren built 36,000 tanks. Hydromatic built ship guns. Other industries also built items. Michigan citizens sacrificed, worked hard, drove their cars slow to save on gas, rationed items, collected paper, metal and milkweed pods (for life jacket stuffing) bought war bonds and cultivated Victory Gardens. (Kern 58) Michigan had led all other states in production of military equipment. But savages in Detroit killed 34 people, looted and burned stores, burned businesses, burned entire neighborhoods and shot at fireman who were trying to put out fires. And they did the same thing in 1967 with a needless loss of 43 lives,. I know I was on the fire department. Firemen are risking their lives to save children in a house fire and put the fire out and savages were shooting at us. Absolutely inexcusable and intolerable. Anyone guilty of attacking a fireman should be deported to Pagan Island in the Pacific because these savages don't deserve to remain in our free country.


I keep hearing that Warren hosted German and Italian prisoners of war from old timers but I have not substantiated this. It appears that some German prisoners of war did work in the Warren area. The closest camps were in Romulus, Grosse Ile, and Blissfield. During the war with so many men going overseas there were labor shortages at home. It appears that many of these prisoners were glad to be alive and glad to work here.


The Germans invaded many other countries killing thousands. Then they attacked England and Russia. They had plans to take over the United States. The Germans starved and butchered several million innocent nonviolent people including women and children and cremated them in ovens. I personally visited Dachau and saw documentary film of the bodies including women and children stacked up like firewood to be put into the ovens. Our troops liberated the concentration camps where people who had nearly been starved to death were made to slave and work for the Germans.


The Japanese attacked other countries cruelly killing and brutalizing the populations then they attacked our fleet in Pearl Harbor. The Germans and especially the Japanese tortured, raped, starved to death and even killed people by slow starvation or mutilation. Look at the history of what the Japanese did to the Americans Chinese and Philippines during World War II.


The Japanese excelled in thousands of unspeakable atrocities to innocent persons including women and children.

Singapore has fallen, and Britain has been humiliated. Victorious Japanese troops scream "Banzai!" These twentieth century barbarians slaughtered, raped, and looted their way across East Asia and the western half of the Pacific Ocean between 1937 and 1945. Including victims killed in China, historians estimate that the Japanese brutally murdered at least five million captive civilians and prisoners of war.

Historians outside Japan estimate that at least five million captive foreign civilians and prisoners of war were brutally murdered by the Japanese military between 1937 and 1945. To that figure, can be added hundreds of thousands of victims who were slowly murdered by starvation, disease, and beatings in Japanese prisoner of war and internment camps, and hundreds of thousands of women who were brutally raped by Japanese soldiers. The appalling rape figure includes two hundred thousand women in Japanese-occupied countries who were forced into sexual slavery in Japanese Imperial Army brothels. Finally, we cannot forget the terrible fate of hundreds of prisoners of war who were murdered by the Japanese Army's infamous Unit 731 in the course of horrible biological experiments.

The use of the word "murder" instead of "execution"


The Japanese excelled in thousands of unspeakable atrocities to innocent persons including women and children. They would beat people daily and torture them. A good source of information is the documentary movie by Ken Burns called The War available at video rentals or PBS. I have talked to many survivors of the Holocaust. Now around the world new atrocities are happening and propaganda is being circulated that the holocaust did not happen. Ask the young Japanese or Germans what their country did in World War II and you will usually find they don't know enough about their country's terrible atrocities to fill a thimble. And these types of atrocities are still being allowed and practiced today around the world. Why did the Japanese and Germans do such terrible things to other humans who did nothing bad to them?


The Japs brutalized, tortured or killed millions of innocent peaceful people.
The Japs raped thousands of children.


The Japs favorite sport was cutting a persons abdomen open so the intestines would fall out then allow them to die painfully over several days.

Another favorite Jap sport was using helpless innocent persons for bayonet practice stabbing them and torturing them.


The Japs performed brutal, painful, often repeated, torture on our American Prisoners of war. They slowly cut off body parts and let him slowly die.


And one more favorite Jap sport was seeing how much work they could get out of people by not giving them food. Millions were slowly killed or starved to death.


Chicago Daily News's quiet-spoken Far Eastern Correspondent Archibald T. Steele wrote the following story July 21 1941 after interviewing the person.

First I was beaten repeatedly about the head and this was followed by 50 lashes with a whip. . . . Then I was flattened on my back, my head was jerked back and water was poured into my nostrils. . . . Next they strapped me into the 'tiger's chair'—an ordinary chair anchored to the floor. Bricks were placed under my feet and piled up one by one. As each brick stretched my taut leg muscles farther, the agony became unbearable. I fainted seven times within 40 minutes. . . . They gave me what they called the 'electric punishment.' I was forced to grasp two electrically charged tubes and the voltage was gradually stepped up. Every inch of my body trembled like jelly. I felt as though I were going to burst." But Liu did not talk; months later the Japanese released him, still under suspicion, let him join the Puppet Government at Nanking. Traveling one day from Shanghai to Nanking by train, Liu outwitted shadowing spies, slipped off at a way station. By devious route he then made his way to Chungking, told his story to Steele.


I am waiting for someone to tell me the word Jap does not show respect. Try saying that to my face. The Japanese have never apologized or even told their children or grand children what they did. The Japs have won the war. There is now no doubt.


The World Almanac states that the Total deaths related to the war were over 45 MILLION


The government of Germany KILLED 14 million of its own people.

German bombs killed 70,000 British Civilians. 100,000 Chinese civilians were killed by the Japanese just to capture the city of Nanking. Japan attacked other countries and took over Indochina. Japan attacked the United States at Hawaii. After lousing thousands of our soldiers and facing losing thousands more the United states leaders decided to bring the war to a halt by bombing just two Japanese cities with just two bombs. (World Almanac) That worked and stopped the Japanese invaders.


Many of our Veterans bravely suffered thru this war.


Korean War Mobilized 5,720,000. Killed 54,246.USA 135,000 also killed in China. Wounded 103,240. POW deaths 8,000 From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages


Vietnam Era Needless Deaths and Suffering?

1964-1973 Almost 9 million service personnel were mobilized, at least 58,253 were killed some may still die of their wounds yet. 53,303 were physically wounded. Thousands were mentally wounded. There are 591 American POWs.. From Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages

Nearly 600,000 other people died. I served during this time. If you didn't volunteer there was a good change you would be drafted. When I got home I was insulted and made fun of. Many vets had their lives wrecked. Many of us still have nightmares and flashbacks. Can you imagine what is it like having to pick up your best friends body parts and put them into a body bag? Many have cancer and other problems related to this needless war. Did my brothers die for freedom? Were we sent to die so private companies made a profit. Rich kids often got out of serving. Later those of us who made it home had to suffer insults and being spit on by lowlifes who were too cowardly to serve their country. It is a good thing I never caught one desecrating our flag. He would have had a hell of a beating.


A common opinion of veterans from this time is that the generals were not allowed to win the war. They played games and let us die for nothing.


Is there a parallel today with Helliburton making millions in profit from war? Helliburton is the Vice Presidents company which he was CEO of and from which he still gets hundreds of thousands of dollars in profits from. Why is Helliburton allowed to get no bid contracts in Iraq and to charge the US very high prices. Why has it been allowed to move its headquarters to Dubai? To avoid US taxes and US regulation? If the President, Vice President and members of congress are so dedicated why is it that neither they or their kids are serving in Iraq? Some of us veterans think that George Bush when he is no longer president should finish his national guard duty in Iraq since he skipped out if it when he was younger. One historical observation is that how different things would be if the leaders, who have had many good years of life, had to do the fighting rather than to send off thousands of young people who have not had a chance to live yet. Are they fit to lead who like cowards skipped out of military duty when they were young? If one has to serve than it is only fair that all serve and not get special treatment because they are rich. Those who refuse to defend our country don't deserve to reap its benefits.


There are many reasons I said the above and they are listed below. I served my country with honor and lived, below are my brothers who gave all they had.

The following information was researched by Mike Grobbel. I quote Mike Grobbel

"Paul Gordon Hazen was the son of Adelbert G. Hazen (Center Line Mayor, 1954-1960) and his wife, the former Leona Borsekowski. Paul was born on Sept. 7, 1944 and in 1965 he was drafted into the U.S. Army . On Dec. 4, 1965, SP4 Paul Hazen began a tour of duty in South Vietnam that ended on Sept. 23, 1966 when he died of multiple fragmentation wounds suffered during hostile action. He was the first Center Line soldier to die in the Vietnam war." According to the National Archives Casualty list found by Mike Grobbel the following soldiers died as a result of the Vietnam War.

BUTLER GERALD EUGENE PFC Marines Center Line 20DEC69 S.Vietnam 11JUN50

CAHILL DANIEL FRANCIS SGT Army Center Line 24FEB69 S.Vietnam 16NOV47 Hostile Killed

GORBE VAUN ARLEN 1LT Army Center Line 05OCT70 S.Vietnam 07JAN47

HAZEN PAUL GORDON SP4 Army Center Line 23SEP66 S.Vietnam 07SEP44 Hostile Killed

BARBER RICHARD JOSEPH PFC Army Warren 07MAY70 S.Vietnam 10FEB49 Hostile Killed

BLANDINO HOWARD ETR2 Navy Warren 29JAN70 S.Vietnam 17JUN48 HOSTILE, DIED-WOUNDS

CARRIER ALBERT JOSEPH III SP4 Army Warren 22AUG69 S.Vietnam 27MAY50 Hostile Killed

CHASE RUSSELL DAVID PFC Army Warren 04FEB68 S.Vietnam 03MAY45 Hostile Killed

CLINE ROBERT LOUIS PFC Army Warren 04JAN68 S.Vietnam 08JAN47 Hostile Killed

COLATRUGLIO ROBERT F WO Army Warren 20JUN70 S.Vietnam 10MAR48 Hostile Killed

ENOS ROBERT RAYMOND JR SP4 Army Warren 14JAN71 S.Vietnam 07DEC50 Hostile Killed

FALK DAVID JOHN SSGT Army Warren 20APR70 S.Vietnam 05MAR48 Hostile Killed

FARRO STANLEY DALE SGT Army Warren 07FEB69 S.Vietnam 14MAY48

GIVENS DAVID JERRY PFC Army Warren 31AUG69 S.Vietnam 20DEC48 Hostile Killed

GREEN KENNETH GERALD SP4 Army Warren 03DEC68 S.Vietnam 15AUG47 Hostile Killed

GRIGGS EDWARD LOUIS III PFC Army Warren 23FEB69 S.Vietnam 05FEB49 Hostile Killed

GROSS ALAN HARRY CPL Army Warren 23MAY70 S.Vietnam 06FEB50 Hostile Killed

GUENTHER WILLIAM RICHARD SGT Army Warren 06SEP68 S.Vietnam 09DEC47 Hostile Killed

GULLA DENNIS JAMES PFC Marines Warren 03FEB69 S.Vietnam 16MAR49

HEYER WALTER EARL JR PFC Army Warren 14SEP69 S.Vietnam 11MAY49

HOGLUND MICHAEL AUGUST SGT Army Warren 10NOV67 S.Vietnam 24NOV46

HOLLINGSWORTH RICHARD LEE SGT Army Warren 09JAN66 S.Vietnam 08AUG31 Hostile Killed

HOOVER ROGER JOSEPH PVT Marines Warren 01DEC67 S.Vietnam 19MAY48 Hostile Killed

JACOBS RICHARD ALLEN PFC Army Warren 27AUG67 S.Vietnam 10DEC48 Hostile Killed

JARVIS JEREMY MICHAEL MAJ Air Force Warren 03APR78 N.Vietnam 05NOV41HOSTILE, DIED

KELLER CHARLES HENRY II CAPT Army Warren 23JUN69 S.Vietnam 22JUL37

KUPIEC THOMAS MARK SP4 Army Warren 17DEC68 S.Vietnam 24MAY47 Hostile Killed

LANE ALAN CPL Army Warren 13MAY67 S.Vietnam 14APR46 HOSTILE, DIED-WOUNDS

LIVINGSTONE DAVID MICHAEL PFC Army Warren 02NOV69 S.Vietnam 23DEC50 Hostile Killed

LYDEN DENNIS M PFC Army Warren 05MAR66 S.Vietnam 07JAN46 Hostile Killed

MARCHLEWICZ ARNOLD M PFC Army Warren 24OCT68 S.Vietnam 30MAR49

MILLER EUGENE STUART CAPT Army Warren 23MAY70 S.Vietnam 15AUG44 Hostile Killed

NABOZNIAK MYRON RICHARD SP4 Army Warren 24SEP70 S.Vietnam 02APR45 Hostile Killed

O CONNOR GARRETT TIMOTHY PFC Army Warren 09MAY68 S.Vietnam 02JAN49 Hostile Killed

OLSEN DONALD BRYAN PFC Marines Warren 12FEB68 S.Vietnam 02MAR49 Hostile Killed

PETELA THOMAS JOSEPH PFC Army Warren 14MAY70 CAMBODIA 16FEB50 Hostile Killed

RADZIECKI MICHAELANTHONY PFC Marines Warren 21JAN69 Vietnam 14OCT47 Hostile Killed

REYES WILLIAM LCPL Marines Warren 05JUL68 S.Vietnam 22MAR48 Hostile Killed

RICCI GERALD CPL Army Warren 12FEB67 S.Vietnam 27NOV46 Hostile Killed

ROGALLA GEORGE HENRY CWO Army Warren MI 02NOV70 S.Vietnam 08DEC49

SKOVIAK RONALD FRANK CPL Marines Warren 08OCT63 S.Vietnam 03AUG41 Hostile Killed

SOSNOSKI RONALD FRANCIS SGT Army Warren 19JUL68 S.Vietnam 29AUG45

THOMPSON NEIL STEWART CPL Army Warren 02MAR68 S.Vietnam 23APR47 Hostile Killed

UTRIAINEN GARY ALBERT SGT Army Warren 11JUN70 CAMBODIA 07JAN51 Hostile Killed

VILLAMOR ROMAN ROZEL JR LCPL Marines Warren 31MAR67 S.Vietnam 10AUG47


Operation Desert Storm

Operation Desert Storm 1991 Mobilized 540,000. Killed 269 Wounded 357 POWs 23

Somalia Killed 18. Wounded 70

Rwanda 1995 Killed 1,050,000


Afghanistan and Iraq


In Iraq There have been 4,707 coalition deaths -- 4,390 Americans, and at least 31,739 wounded per CNN.

In Afghanistan there have been 1,682 coalition deaths -- 1,019 Americans, US Casualties 5,317. as of March 25, 2010. per CNN.

To see the names and faces click on this link. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/forces/casualties/index.html

Many of us veterans feel that neither was worth even one American life. The best action in the opinion of most is to get out. OVER 5,000 OF OUR BROTHERS DEAD FOR WHAT? Another Vietnam. 60,000 dead for what? We were sucked in to guerrilla warfare again when there were better ways to fight.


What can be learned from wars and history?

An important lesson of history is that if a people do not keep alert, informed and prepared they can become the slaves or victims of others who might conquer them. Thousands of men and women have gone to war to defend our freedom. Many fought and died. America was stronger and freedom was brighter because of them. It is a disgrace that about one half of our 18 year olds don't even know what the major law of our land is and why it was created or who the enemy was in WWII. Most of them can't find the USA on a blank map. Our constitution and bill of rights are very important. They should be educated about the constitution and bill of rights.


For thousands of years the chief causes of death for Warren area residents was:

Attacks from other humans, Freezing, Starvation, Injuries with inadequate medical care, wild animal attacks. After the arrival of Europeans the main causes of death changed somewhat.

Diseases were added to the above list. Many children and adults died of diseases we now have cures for such as measles, smallpox, tuberculosis, Cholera, Influenza, TB, Diphtheria, Malaria, etc.

Even though we now have the best medical care in history there are troubles on the horizon. Bacteria have a very short life span and multiply billions of generations during a human life span. This means that they adapt to environmental changes more quickly than humans. We have been foolishly feeding antibiotics to farm animals such as cows for years. Bacteria are becoming resistant to our antibiotics. New germs are appearing that are resistant to nearly every antibiotic we have now. Also of importance is that humans are not doing adequate research on creating new antibiotics and into preventing diseases. Several new super bugs are now appearing and threaten the world.. We have no way of stopping them. To make it worse terrorists are beginning to find ways to capture grow and transport these super germs. It is only a matter of time until they are released on our area. But now not enough research is being done on drug resistant bacteria that will soon threaten us all.

Warren Area residents are dying now because national politicians favored special interest groups rather than citizens lives to allow pollution of the Great Lakes and of our Air and our soil. Now many people are dying from air pollution causes. No I am not exaggerating this. Our Air, water and land were pure prior to 1830. The politicians allowed big companies to dump mercury into the Great Lakes. They knew then that is was poisonous. Now we can't eat fish from our own Great lakes. Our air is polluted. Hundreds of people are dying from cancer, emphysema and other pollution related diseases. If you doubt any word written here just do a little research and you will discover that I have written the terrible historic truth.

Roads

The rivers were the roads to the early pioneers. There were Indian trails wide enough for one person to travel on dry days. As trails were more traveled they got wider and in the spring and fall or after a rain they became seas of mud that sometimes neither man or beast could travel on. As mentioned above the Christian Moravian Indians made the first road in Michigan. The only group available to build roads was the Army. In 1816 the Detroit garrison began building a road to Ohio. By 1819 it was cut through. But it was so poorly constructed that major improvements in it had to be made on it in following years. Part of this was the part across the Black Swamp. Until this was done wagons could not travel to or from Michigan.

A road N W to Pontiac was begun in 1816.

A post-road from Pontiac Saginaw and Mr Clemens was laid out in 1823. By 1835 it only Pontiac to Flint had been completed. Swamps were the biggest problem. (Willis F Dunbar 247)

A road to Chicago was started in 1825. By 1835 two stagecoaches a week were operating between Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) This was known as the Chicago Military Road. (Willis F Dunbar 247) These so called roads were little more than pathways cut thru the woods with logs laid crosswise across swampy parts and very crude bridges made across streams if whey were too deep to be forded. Settlers often made money pulling wagons out of mud holes. Dunbar states that it was said that some mud holes were man made in order to make profit from pulling wagons out of them. (Willis F Dunbar 248)

In 1827 a road was approved to Saginaw, and another to Ft. Gratiot in Port Huron. Why did the road have to be approved? To build a road thru the forest trees had to be cut down, stumps removed, a road bed leveled and the road paved with planks. Everything had to be done by hand in those days as there was no power equipment. It cost around $1000 per mile back then to pave a road. The only one with enough money to do this was the state and federal governments.

At spots on these roads were found not by accident taverns and hotels. The Warren hotel, Millers tavern, perhaps Kunrod's were perhaps some of our local ones.


The Michigan territory population had increased to 212,000 from settlers thanks to the Erie Canal. “Nowhere in the West did Yankee stock predominate to the degree that it did in Michigan.” Many settlers came from New England. (Willis F Dunbar 255) Many came from Ohio and Indiana and later many came from Germany and other parts of Europe.

Construction on Gratiot was completed in 1831

The main road from 1820-1880 was the State Road. Again quoting Gerald Neil “it ran as follows: Northeast from Detroit on Connors, across Eight Mile Road almost at the Van Dyke intersection. Continuing on northwest to Sherwood, (a small section of Connors road still remains here) then north on Sherwood to Eleven Mile. Here it angled northwesterly to join up with Mound Road and continue on north through into Sterling Township.” Part of the road in Detroit, between Van Dyke at Grinnel and winding down to Harper, now known as St Cyril bore the name Center Line Road until sometime around 1945. The Statnd winding de Road was full of ruts and either dusty or a sea of mud until it was planked in 1856. Quite a few years later it was also condemned after the planks rotted. It was then paved with gravel.

Van Dyke (then called the territorial road and known as the Center Line road) was soon built. A base line had been set up across the state and the various future main roads drawn on maps. Van Dyke was a fairly straight dirt road by 1840. The name Van Dyke was from the family that had a big farm on Van Dyke further to the South and a member of that family James A Van Dyke had been elected mayor of Detroit. It was named that about 1885. Even later it was named the Earl memorial highway.

Sherwood Road was planked in 1856. This also became known as the State Road sometimes called the Center Line road which ran from Detroit North from Connor Creek past Harper and north along what is now called Sherwood to the Village of Warren. A settlement of Hickory Corners once exited at Connor Road, which followed Connor Creek to Jefferson.

The roads in the area were more like dirt trails than roads. In the spring and early winter they were seas of mud.

Van Dyke was first a dirt trail, than a dirt road then planked, then redone with gravel, then in the early 1920’s had two concrete slabs 18 feet apart. About 1927 the citizens were petitioning the government to have the gravel center 18 foot section paved.

Local roads

Gerald Neil who had access to the Warren Township records which have not been lost stated “Roads were then, as they are now, a major concern of the local residents. Six or seven roads were laid jout the first two years leading to or from our major highway, the 'State Road.'” “Roads, of course, were always the major concern of both the officials and land-holders. They were important not only for traffic movement, but for trucking of produce to market places, and for supplies coming in. Then, as now, there never seemed to be enough money or manpower to provide 'decent roads'”. (Gerald Neil 7)

Van Dyke was a fairly straight dirt road by 1840.

The center of Warren Township was at eleven Mile Road and Van Dyke ) the Center Line Road. On the South East Corner there was built the Old Township hall.

Although Gratiot was the first paved cement road other areas caught up within a few years. By 1950 practically every road in the city was paved with cement.

Roads were improved over time. While Warren Born Michigan governor was in office over 6,500 miles of state roads had been improved and over 2,000 miles of concrete highway had been laid. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 230)


Commercial logging began in the 1840s, and from the Civil War until the early twentieth century.

In 1843 Frederika Minda built a log cabin on Nine Mile Road near Ryan. In the 1970’s it was moved across from the Bunert farm and later to the historic park along the Red Run Creek just east of Mound. A few years later vagrants or vandals set it on fire. The same fate happened to the old train station at Chicago Road and the NYC railroad tracks.


Pioneer Clothing

The pioneers soon found that deerskin provided good clothing if it was correctly made. It had to be properly tanned and then worked until it was soft. It proved to be more rugged for pioneer work than cheap store clothing. Pioneers often wore tough deerskin breeches and skirts that had been worked by hand and sewed with sinews. Coonskin caps were common. Deer skin moccasins were not as good as work boots but could at least be made at home. Deerskin provided clothing that “could withstand the wear and tear of briars, and brush, repel cold winds, and ward off snake bite. (Willis F Dunbar 259) I will add an important point that deerskin was impossible for mosquitoes to bite thru. Later as sheep were brought in wool garments proved very sturdy. Flax was also grown and could be made into strong clothing. The problem with flax was it took a lot of hand labor to create workable fibers. Whereas with sheep one only needed to shear them. Many Warren farmers raised some sheep. In the long winters the spinning wheel and hand loom were much used (Willis F Dunbar 259)


Many of the common things we use were not even invented until recently and then it often took many years more before they were available to the average person.

Clothing in general for men consisted of shirt, pants, waist coat, shoes and long stockings. Women wore a long undershirt called a chemise covered by a waistcoat and long skirt. A work apron and bonnet completed the wardrobe. Boys and girls both wore dresses until older. By the way underwear was usually not owned or worn until about the middle 1800’s. It was not uncommon for babies and children to be wearing only their birthday suit. Herbs were rubbed on for mosquito repellent. Children and men often swam in the nude. Babies were sometimes nursed in tandem and on demand. More clothing was of course worn in the winter time. Most people had two changes of clothing. One for every day work and the other for Sunday and dress up wearing. The clothing was not usually fancy just functional. Fancy dress clothing appeared later in Center Line and Warren than back east. The population was anything but rich and could not afford fancy clothing. They were farming people tied to the running of the farm and with no place to go even if they had fancy clothes. But they did have their shindigs. They had plowing bees, quilting bees, picnics, “singins,” in addition to the Sunday church services.


The Blacksmith

In the absence of stores and money to early pioneers and farmers the blacksmith was a lifesaver. He would heat up iron and make needed tools of every kind. He made horse shoes, nails, knives, racks, rings, axles, traps, hoes, augers, bells, shears, bullet molds, locks, adzes, plows lamps and anything else needed from metal.


The sawmill

This was usually the first business set up in a community. And in the early days it was tha main business other than farming. Log cabins took 60 to 80 trees to make and took much heavy labor. But a house could be made of cut wood with much less labor and using much less wood.


Tanners

In the early days tanners were invaluable. They had the skill to create leather articles and clothing needed by the farmers.


Brewer

All there was to drink in the old days was water. One could make tea from wild plants. Occasionally liquor was brought in. But many Old farmers liked beer and it is no surprise that a brewery was one of the early businesses in Warren.


Wagon maker

Another early business was the wagon maker. He had the tools and skill to make much needed wagons and carriages. Warren had Mr Lutz and also a carriage shop.

Physician

The first so called doctors had less medical knowledge than a high school graduate today. They often had just bought a large book which had a Diploma in the back and filled it out themselves. Some had actually taken a class or two. Later on some actually attended medical schools. Since people did not have money the so called doctors accepted payment in other goods like chickens or other food.


Mills

Farmers needed their grain ground, It could be done by hand was labor intensive and time consuming. So mills sprung up. Wilcott mill is still in working order and can be viewed. In northern Macomb County.


Storekeeper

The storekeeper sold goods to the local residents that they could not grow or make themselves. Back in the 1840s-1900s they sold clothing, sugar, salt, coffee, thread, needles, shoes, boots, tools, harnesses, books, buttons etc. See the foto pages on country store. We had lots of them in Warren. Frank Peck. In Warren. Kunrod and Joseph Buchel.in Center Line


Daltons Corners was the site of the Dalton family farm at Eight Mile and Van Dyke according to Gerald L Neil in his History of Warren Michigan 1837 -1976.

Until the 1820's the area of Warren was covered with mature forest. Then the land was gradually cleared for farming. Often crops were planted between the tree stumps. It took many years to get rid of the stumps and surface roots. Another reason that the land was cleared was that one of the conditions to keep a government land grant was that several acres of land had to be cleared. The area consisted by 1850 of many rough farms and "damp" areas.


The Weier Family Centennial Farm was built in 1856. This was the last working farm in Warren. There was an Indian mound just to the West of that farm. Some of the last Indians in Warren may have lived near there.


The John Teisen Homestead was built in 1857, is the oldest documented still existing residence in Warren. The land was originally owned by William Cummins in the 1830's. It is located as 12240 10 Mile Road. He certainly has one of the oldest stones in Center Line St Clement Cemetery. See the picture of it in the St Clement folder.


By 1865 the Civil War was over but not without sorrow for those who died for their beliefs. The Battle of Gettysburg, for example resulted over 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, captured or missing. Many laid there for days dying with no pain killers and no help. See the Civil War file. Several Center Line and Warren residents served the cause of freedom.


In 1889 The Gurton Hoard built a home which still exists as the Lyle Elliott Funeral Home located at 31730 Mound. This building was a days buggy ride from Utica to Detroit and was used as a hotel and later as a residence, boarding house, doctors office and apartments.


Population

In 1850 the population of Warren Township was 700-750. There was even quicker growth as population figures show. 997 in 1854, 1335 in 1860, 1468 in 1864, 1938 in 1870, 2214 in 1874, 2401 in 1880, 2384 in 1884, 2423 in 1890, 2592 in 1894.

A settlement of Hickory Corners once exited at Connor Road, which followed Connor Creek to Jefferson.

The Schwartz House was built circa 1858.


The Buhrns/Qualman House was built in 1861 located at 5297 10 Mile Road. This was built by Joachim Behrns who farmed the land until his death in 1888. In 1902 Charles Quitman bought the land. His son farmed the tract until 1928. William was elected Warren Township treasurer and served on the Center Line Board of Education.


In 1865 Guy and Glenda Dunbar built a log cabin at Ten Mile Road and Groesbeck.

In 1865 The Jones family built a house on the Creek Road (Chicago Road). In 1889 Dr. Flynn bought this house and the family has lived here until 1951. He was born in New York, came to Warren in 1880 and was the only doctor here for many years. Dr Flynn and his wife Annie E. Flynn were influential in establishing the Murthumn High School in 1926. She assisted her husband as a nurse and served on the Women's War board and as treasurer of the School District No 3. The Flynn Junior High School was dedicated in her name in 1973. In fact in the 1860 census of the residents that were born elsewhere the largest number claimed New York as their native state. More that one-quarter of the people in Michigan in 1860 were born in New York. One quarter were from Michigan and almost 5% from Ohio. Warren was probably about the same. In later years more immigrants came from foreign lands.


The Engleman/Spieler House was built in 1871.


Center Line had a few saloons and they had spittoons


The main occupation in Center Line was farming and raising livestock.


Charles and Anna Jacob's 1875 farmhouse was located at Mound and Eleven Mile Road.

The Warren Co-op was originally built as a train station in 1874 and used in the 1890's as a farmer's mill and was torn down in 1995. It was located at Chicago Road and the NYC Railroad. The Co-op itself started in the 1920’s.


Schools

Schools were non existent for most of the history of our area. People could not read or write. Children had to work to survive. They learned survival skills from their parents.

After 1818 some home schools were formed and children taught in local cabins. Some families allowed visiting teachers to sleep in and gave them food in exchange for work and “schooling” their children.

The pioneers were first too busy with just surviving. But as farms developed and farm families were able to support their families they felt the need for basic education. Most residents at that time were not able to read or write. Sometimes they would have others come to their homes to teach their children. Some of the local churches may have been involved with some basic education.

In 1827 the Territorial Council enacted a measure to enable townships to maintain schools. Townships containing at least fifty families were to employ a schoolmaster of good morals to teach the children to read and write, instruct them in English and French languages, and teach arithmetic, orthography, and good behavior. Schools were to operate at least six months a year, taxes might be levied for their support, and the poor were to be instructed without cost. In townships having at least two hundred families, a “grammar school” was to be maintained and a master employed who could teach Latin. A board of not more than five commissioners was to have charge of schools in each township. In 1829 a law was passed that provided that the costs of maintaining schools was to be borne by those whose children were taught, but poor children were to be taught at the expense of the district. Back in those days these were all elementary schools. For any education beyond this one had to go to a private academy. (Willis F Dunbar 283)

Subjects in pioneer schools were reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, grammar and geography. Some schools did not have black boards or chalk. Sometimes paper was not to be had. Lincoln had to resort to doing math on a wood board then he shaved the writing off. Some schools on wood. or doing school writing in damp sand filled trays. (Lawrence E. Ziewacz 164) A schoolmaster was supposed to be able to make quill pens and be able to defeat the largest boy in the class in a fist fight.. And maintain discipline. The birch rod was an indispensable part of his equipment and any pupil who misbehaved would feel its sting. Women were sometimes used in the summer term when there were mostly girls in the classes. But women school teachers had to be courageous to teach. (Willis F Dunbar 284) Women were also used because they would work for less money.


The first known school was s split log school house the farmers built at the corner of Creek Road (Chicago Road) and Ryan roads. This school house was also used for a church for both the Methodist and Baptist groups. This log building also had split log benches. Usually there were in these log schools boards laid across pegs driven into the walls and used for desks. Rather uncomfortable to say the least. Early log schools usually had just a fireplace rather than a stove so it was hot by the fire and cold away from it. Teachers were often paid a sum per each pupil taught. There were often few if any good books.

There was also an East School built before 1875 on Chicago Road between Van Dyke and Mound.

West school was built in 1894 to the south on Ryan Road. That burned down in 1931.A newer better red brick building was built to the south on Ryan Road and is still standing.


The North school built in 1859 was also called the Berz school. It was located on the West side of Mound just South of 15 Mile Road. It became part of the Warren Consolidated School District in 1941, It was sold in August of 1952.


The South school was built in 1866.  It was located on the East side of Mound Road between 13 Mile Road and 12 Mile Road. It was also called the Halmich School.  In November of 1945 it was sold to General Motors and is now part of the GM Tech Center.


There was also an East School built before 1875 on North side of Chicago Road between Van Dyke and Mound.  It was about 500 feet west of Van Dyke.  It was sold in August 1951 to Seventh Day Adventst Church.  From 1963 to 1968 with new owners it was extensively remodeled.  It now exists as part of Teddys Tavern.


The Plunket school was a one room school located at State Road and 10 mile Road.

Several local churches ran schools. See the story of St Clement.


Murthumn High School was built in 1926. The Flynn Junior High School was dedicated 1973.


Bunert One Room School

The Bunert One Room School was built in 1875 and located on the northeast corner of Bunert and Martin Roads. It was named after August and Mine Bunert who sold the land to the Warren School District No. 4 in January of 1875. The school is a wood frame board-and-batten structure. Originally the school housed students in grades 1-8. A larger two room school was built in 1927 and sat next to the Bunert School. In 1944 a new 6 room school was built and named Charwood after Betty Chargo and Irene Woodward. Classes K-4 were taught in the one room school, 5-6 and 7-8 were taught in the two room school. The two schools had 3 teachers and 65 students. Classes were held in it until 1944. The two older schools were then sold to John O’Connor who made them into residences. In 1970 it was sold to the Santa Maria Lodge. In 1987 the lodge people offered it to The Warren Historical Society who later moved a few hundred yards to its present location just south of the Tower High School and have restored it as a school and museum.


The traffic had shifted to Van Dyke away from the old state road. So Warren Village remained a rural community. The other village of Center Line was prospering

World War One led to the deaths of several young men. See the separate file on World War I. Thousands of men and women went to war to defend our freedom. Many fought and died. Many came home. America was stronger and freedom was brighter because of them. Our constitution and bill of rights are very important. You should read them. What is the constitution? What is the bill of rights?

In 1918 there was a huge snow storm that absolutely isolated Center Line for several days. It was just impossible to go anywhere. There was little if any snow removal equipment anywhere. People were digging out for weeks. And they did not have snow shovels or show ploughs.

1919 pop up toaster invented.

1920 Radio in most homes.

Telephone service began in 1920.

1920 American women in the paid workforce: 23.7% of all women; 46.4% of unmarried women; 9% of married women

1924 a survey of American housewives indicated that they spent 52 hours a week doing housework.

On the railroad line at Eleven Mile Road on the northeast corner was located the Lewis Hartzig Esquire residence.

The Theme Harness Shop on Chicago Road later became Archen Brown’s Barber Shop and Batt’s Ice Cream Shop.

The Kutchey Farms a 40 acre estate on Ten Mile Road, west of Ryan Road with cows, pugs, and horses existed when Warren was the rhubarb capital of the world.

There was the Brohl Family truck-garden farm, complete with smokehouse, pig pen and corn crib on Ten Mile Road and Schoenherr.

F.E Groesbeck had a farm and house on Planked State Road (Sherwood) between Nine and Ten Mile.


The settlers of the 1830-1899 era were: The Beebe Family, The Groesbecks, The Barton Family, The Corey family, Samuel Gibbs, Alonzo Haight, Lyman Rhodes, John Barton, Jenison Glazier, Louis Beaufait, Vincent Trombly, N. Trombly, J. Schlant, J. Rubinet, P. Miller, P. Rotarius, M. Weingartz, Joseph Buechel, H. Kaltz, Mrs. Lefevre, L. Desmet, Jos Miller, J.P. Rotarius, M. Miller, Jas, Cramer, Jos. Meyer, Kramer, G. Kaltz, A. Kaltz, M. Lentz, P. Parch, M. Bourike, J. Hulbert, Jos. Deconxnke, Jos. Meyer, P. Cramer, R. Riem, J. J. Kaltz, Wm Smitts, Wm, Hassett, P. Adams, J. Engleman, J. Dwyer, P. Thiet, John Ryan, M. Welch, Ardy Straket, P. Desgrandchamps, F.E. Groesbeck, J. Gerome and many others.

The Halmich Farm was located on the northeast corner of Twelve Mile and Mound.

There were several bands that had free band concerts. The Schools had bands, the American Legion, there a few community bands. My mother played clarinet, accordion and ocarina. To hear the symphony we traveled to Belle Isle for free concerts at the band shell there.

Although some telegraph service came to Macomb County as early as 1850 reliable telegraph service did not until after 1880.

Postal service arrived about 1880.

The original township hall is still in the Warren Village but the Old Township hall at Eleven Mile and Van Dyke was torn down in 1957 after a few years of non use.

The Harwood house built around 1880 was home of Homer Harwood who published Warren's first newspaper, the Warren Watchman from 1880-1921.

Ray Holmes published the Home Merchant newspaper in Center Line for many years.

In 1890 the condition of the old State Road planks had deteriorated so much that they were condemned and the road was paved with stones.

The Murthum House located at 5820 Murthum was built in 1895. This is a combination Greek Revival and Queen Anne (noted for gables, dental moldings, fish scale shingles and fretwork) design. Several acres of land were used for the William Murthim School which was also known as Victory School. There also was a Victory-Ellis school in Center Line.

The Kidd/Beer House was built around 1900.

The Baseline Hardware and the Baseline Feed Store were built at the turn of the century and are still in operation in 2004. The abstract deed for this property dates back to 1833. It has been owned and operated the Joseph Verheye family since 1939. Located on Van Dyke in the locale of Baseline.


Interurbans

In 1901 the interurbans began. They lasted until 1930. The tracks were on Van Dyke and turned around near where Homer's Drug Store used to be. (across from Shoppers Market) This line would have gone further North and over to The Village of Warren had it not been for objections of farmers that these machines made too much noise and would adversely affect their livestock.


In 1901 the Mt Clements Sugar Company was founded. They made sugar from Michigan grown sugar beets. Now the residents could get locally produced sugar.

The first bank in Warren was The State Savings Bank of Warren in 1902 founded by C.A. Burr and Arthur Newberry. It was located in what later became Diehl’s General Store. It later moved across in an impressive new brick building at the northeast corner Chicago Road and Mound.

In the early 1900's electricity came in and phones were installed, cars and tractors were beginning to replace horses, although steam was still widely used, Van Dyke was crushed stone in the early twenties.

Another wave of settlers came in around 1919. This time they were mostly from southern and the Midwestern states. The Walter C. Piper Co purchased farms off of Van Dyke north of Eight Mile Road and resold them into lots at fairly low prices.

Before electricity came in lighting was from oil lamps and candles. A lot of fires were caused by them.

1900s

The 1900’s saw many other changes. Electric home appliances started to appear. The first electric appliance was the electric iron. Two wheel bicycles were beginning to be popular. 1904 gasoline powered tractors, 1904 ice-cream cones.

The traffic had shifted to Van Dyke away from the old state road. So Warren Village remained a rural community. The other village of Center Line was prospering.

In 1905 David and Alice completed work on the carriage house located on the property of Alice's father Elijah Davy who had given it to Alice in 1880. The street on which it was located was named Wilson street which was later named Seventh Street. He had bought it from Charles Davy in 1848 for $300.00. Charles Davy had bought the 40 acres of land from public auction for $65.00 to pay the debts of the estate of Orton Gibbs. This 40 acres contained the west half of what later became Beebe's Corner.

1908 the Model T Automobile was begun to be sold. Mr Ford constantly stressed dependability and durability The car was made to last, be easy to fix, be able to navigate the poor roads and be affordable. Evidently the cars were such as the Model T evently sold 15 million of them.

1908 first electric vacuum cleaner for home use, The ladies the bra was invented by Mary Jacob in 1913. These replaced corsets, before that take your best guess.

1914 electric washing machine,

1914 canneries produced many food products in tin cans. These became increasingly available at the local general stores like Buechel's.

In the early 1900's electricity came in and phones were installed. By 1910 Center Line and Warren soon had electricity and phones. There were no buttons on the phones then and no dial. You would pick the speaker part then crank the crank to get the operators attention. You would then speak into the microphone bell part and ask to be connected to the other person. The speaker part was held up separately to your ear and was separate from the microphone part that you spoke in to.

1916 a refrigerator cost $900 then, by 1920 10,000 were sold, by 1925 75,000 were sold. Most people still used an ice box at that time. This was a cabinet that had a compartment where the ice man placed a big block of ice. There was a pan on the floor under the ice box. If someone forgot to empty it and you walked up to it at night for a snack you got a rude very cold message from your bare feet. The ice box had benefits. It did not use any electricity and never wore out.

Drilled wells

In 1909 Henry L Claeys came to Warren with a well drilling machine. He drilled wells in three counties eventually using three machines. Later he founded the Claeys Plumbing supply company. In Center Line it was the Wiegand family were well drillers and even sponsored a community cistern.


Natural gas service arrived in the late 1920’s

Frank Peck had a Grocery and meat market at Chicago and Mound roads.

Most of Warren remained a rural farming community until the 1940s. Many families still raised some livestock like chickens and maintained their own gardens. And the chickens were no problem. Except for the rooster chickens aren't very noisy. And a rooster is not needed for eggs for eating. So we could have chickens today. They eat most anything including table scraps, weeds, weed seeds, and insects. It would be a good idea to allow people to have chickens for eggs and food again.


Most of the growth area was in southern Warren south of Eleven Mile road.



Specifically Center Line

After the businesses Kunrod’s Corners shifted to the Center Line Road at Church Road (Engleman) after the church was built, the community became known as Center Line.

In 1875 the population of Center Line then was about 125.

Hyronemus Engleman a Civil War veteran was then postmaster and the following businesses were present:

C. Berghofer shoemaker Joseph Buechel general store, Louis Conrad saloon, Carl Dupel shoemaker, Louis Grushep lumber manufacturer, Rev. Wiley Hendricks Catholic Pastor, Joseph Kramer carpenter, Frank Kultz general store, Matthew Kultz blacksmith, Mathias Miller general store, Peter Reichert wagon maker, Wiley Simons physician, Mrs. Vandsutter saloon, Mrs. Withoff saloon and others.

The land owners were: Vincent Trombly, N. Trombly, J. Schlant,  J. Rubinet,  P. Miller, P. Rotarius, M. Weingartz, Joseph Buechel, H. Kaltz, Mrs. Lefevre, L. Desmet,  Jos Miller,  J.P. Rotarius, M. Miller,  Jas, Cramer, Jos. Meyer, Kramer, G. Kaltz, A. Kaltz, M. Lentz, P. Parch, M. Bourike, J. Hulbert,  Jos. Deconxnke,  Jos. Meyer, P. Cramer, R. Riem,  J. J. Kaltz, Wm Smitts, Wm, Hassett, P. Adams, J. Engleman, J. Dwyer, P. Thiet,  John Ryan, M. Welch, Ardy Straket, P. Desgrandchamps, F.E. Groesbeck,  J. Gerome. and many others.

Center Line however voted to become a village in 1925 and a city in 1936

St Clement Church and School

This was formed in 1853 and was serviced by visiting priests. In 1854 the first St. Clement church was built on Van Dyke. Before this little wooden church was built on Church Road (now Engleman) and the centre line, residents had made long rides to St. Mary's in downtown Detroit or Assumption on Gratiot at Six Mile Road. In bad weather the roads were almost impassible. The wagons had no heaters in winter. The community known as Kunrod’s corners was centered around State Road (now Sherwood) and Ten Mile Road which was a dirt or mud path. Wesley Arnold humble historian stated that he never did find evidence of Kunrod. Hopefully something may be found in the deeds of that time. So he supposed that he was a businessman who rented a building at Ten Mile and Sherwood. The local citizens were mostly immigrants from Germany, Ireland, France and Belgium.


They decided that then wanted a church in the nearby area. The St Clement Parish was established around 1850 and met in local homes. An actual church building was not constructed until four years later. The local people decided that they wanted a church to be built on the west side of the “Centre Line”. This was the center road of Warren Township (now Van Dyke). They felt that they would not be able to get to church in the spring and fall when the roads turned to mud seas, especially over by Kunrod’s corners as this was the lowest area near by the creek. Also more residents lived nearer to the East side location. Peter Rotarius donated two acres of his land on the land on the west side of the “Centre line”. Next to him was Johann Weingartz who donated an acre. Later Mathias and Josepf Miller donated two acres of land they had been given as payment for work they had done for Joseph Cramer. The community voted to establish on the East side of the centre line. Additional properties were donated and several parcels of land were raffled and the money used to buy six acres of the Cramer-Clemens farm. The parish may have been named St Clement after Mr. Clemens. The parish boundaries were from Woodward to Lake St Clair and from Eight Mile to Fourteen Mile Roads.


In 1854 a simple wood frame church building was built. In 1857 a one-room school was erected. The parish was served by visiting priests until 1858 when Father Henry Meuffels became the first resident priest. In 1868 an addition was put on to the wood frame church.


In trying to read the pastors writing as I worked on this history, I was told that they went to a different school of handwriting. I don’t know about that but they sure sometimes got careless about good penmanship. When all of the letters look like undotted i’s than something is wrong. Plus I had to buy two Latin books to figure out the meanings as the records are in Latin. Father William Hendrickx became the pastor in 1868. He spoke several languages.


By 1870 the first wooden church had become too crowded and was enlarged. A New pipe organ was also installed.


On May 10 1871 the cemetery was relaid out. During Fr Hendrick's time (1871) the school building was enlarged and Housing dwellings for the teachers and organist were built.


In May 10, 1871 the St Clement cemetery was relayed out.  A lot of people from Warren are buried there.  The St Clement school was enlarged and dwellings for the church organist and teachers was erected.  Nuns served as teachers and were not paid.  On several occasions they asked the pastor for help as they did not have food or the means to buy clothes.  They were not very happy about the answers they got from him.  Of course the church was fairly poor.


According to a Macomb Daily news article "Fr Hendrick proposed on Jan 6 1880 the building of a new church. "The proposal was received with great enthusiasm and the corner stone was laid on July 5, 1880....The church was dedicated Nov 6, 1881." (Macomb Daily Pagent of Progress)


In 1880 a new brick St Clement was built based on the plans for the Sacred heart Church in Detroit. Its dimensions were 136 feet by 54 with five entrances and fifteen stained glass windows. It cost $18,000. The corner stone laid out on July 5 had a mistake. The stone mason got carried away and had 1888 on it. But careful reworking covered that up until years later. That was a very well made church. Construction started in September and the church was dedicated on Nov 6, 1881. The building was 136 feet long and 54 feet wide at a cost of $18,000. It had 15 stained glass windows and a number of paintings, chaste frescoes. It was one of the most beautiful churches in the area. It had 5 entrances. At the time it was the highest structure in Warren. According to a Macomb Daily article dated April 1, 1967 George Freidhoff an immigrant from Bavaria and his uncle John Freidhoff helped to construct the church. A Mrs. Freidhoff reported that Lambert Peters, his brother Antoine Peters, and son-in-law Peter Guion worked as plasterers and bricklayers on the church. Lambert Peters also did the beautiful frescos, cove ceilings and arches. Some of the organists were Miss Cecelia Wirth, Miss Catherine Miller, and Mrs. Frank Kaltz. Sextons were Ben and Joseph Grobble and Adam Burkhesier. Mrs. Freidhoff stated that people drove their buggies for miles to visit the beautiful church and that some of the early church members were the families of: Antonie and Henry Peters, Alex and Noah Groesbeck, William Henry Halmich, Alfred Peters, John, and George Friedhoff, Anthony Wolf, Peter Kaltz, Peter Burg, Mathias Miller, George Springer, Andrew Rinke, John Grobbel, Michael Kuchey, Bernard Hoste, John Campbell, George Baumgardner, Robert Dalton, Joseph Metter, Simon Leonard, Henry Vaer Hoven, John and Willian DeGrandchamp, George Gill, John Elliot, Joseph Rivard, John Hafferley, Louis Schoenherr, William Jackson, Frank Rivard, August VeLyne, Daniel Jackson, Reinhold Hessel, John Buechel, Joseph Altermatt, August LaMael, Robert Rasch, Chris Ruhlman, William Theut, John Theut and Heronomus Engleman.


Later the frame church was removed in order to build a new brick school with two classrooms and an auditorium.


In 1890 the new Pastor Father Kramer convinced three sisters of Providence of St Mary’s of the Woods, Vigo County Indiana to come here to teach.


Nuns served as teachers and were not paid. On several occasions they asked the pastor for help as they did not have food or the means to buy clothes. They were not very happy about the answers they got from him. Of course the church was fairly poor.


They were replaced in 1892 by the Sisters of St. Dominic from Racine, Wisconsin. In 1896 an upper story was added to the small schoolhouse and was quickly turned into a hall where school children put on plays and held recitals.


The Official St Clement’s history states that picnics were held across from the church in Engleman grove and that a platform was built for dancing and a German Band played music.

By the year 1916, 182 students were enrolled at St. Clement School. That number rose to 600 students by 1920. The pressing need for a new and larger school led to the construction of a two-story, 16 room brick and concrete school. It had a high school and auditorium with a 1,000 seat capacity. The first high school graduating class, in 1926, consisted of one person Ester Delia Schnoblen (Smith). In 1952 Father Timothy Murray became pastor of St. Clement and ground was broken for a new school to accommodate 1,300 students. In 1960 work was begun on the present modern church with 65 foot-high vaulted ceiling, gables forming a cross, hundreds of panes of stained glass and seating capacity for 1,600. It also has a 130 foot bell tower.


Next to this church many businesses were built.  John F Buechel had moved his store from Kunrod’s corners to a location just south of the church.  He sold clothing, groceries, candy, cigars, shoes, combs and many common articles needed by the local farmers. See the many pictures in the folder “store”. Buechel was noted for his fine penmanship (unlike the pastors of the church) and he also served as township clerk for years.


Joseph A Rinke and Michael Smith opened an hardware and agricultural implements business just north of the church.  Later Smith opened a lumber yard at Ten Mile and Sherwood.

Some of the oldest structures in Center Line lie hidden inside some of the older houses. One would find hand hewn beams and may be wooden pegs.

The Community Church in Center Line was built in 1924.

The Bethel Methodist Church on Packard in Center Line was built in the 1920’s.

The Trinity Lutheran Church is located one block south of Stephens and one block East of Van Dyke at 8150 Chapp in Warren.

1851 sewing machine invented and by 1860 100,000 were sold.

1852 cast iron stoves were becoming common.

1854 the first of four St, Clement churches was built on Van Dyke at Church Street (Engleman)

In 1863 Joseph Buechel built the first general store at Ten Mile and State Road in Center Line

In 1900 Center Line was reached from Detroit by Van Dyke and by street car.

The car tracks were built high on the side of Van Dyke, then paved with crushed stone from Eight Mile Road north.  The street car tracks ended just North of Ten Mile Road.


I'll quote from the manuscript of "Pioneering in Warren Township" by Anna Kluck.  "Center Line at that time was separated from the outskirts of Detroit at Six Mile Road by four miles of broad green meadows broken here and there by a sturdy farm house.  As far as the little community at the end of the tracks was concerned, those four miles may as well have been 40 to 400, so different was their way of life.  They even had a slight accent picked up from their German parents that made a difference, "In stepping off the street car one would encounter no building for about a block.  The first place was Gus Miller’s with a barber shop next door.  Then came Buechel's old general store and a little further on St Clement Church.  Across Engleman, then called Church Street was an old frame store that was Rinkie’s hardware store.


Further down were Wilie’s Butcher Shop and Drug Store was Center Line’s entire business district."

The main road from 1820-1880 was the State Road. Again quoting Gerald Neil “it ran as follows: Northeast from Detroit on Connors, across Eight Mile Road almost at the Van Dyke intersection. Continuing on northwest to Sherwood, (a small section of Connors road still remains here) then north on Sherwood to Eleven Mile. Here it angled northwesterly to join up with Mound Road and continue on north through into Sterling Township.” Part of the road in Detroit, between Van Dyke at Grinnel and winding down to Harper, now known as St Cyril bore the name Center Line Road until sometime around 1945. The State Road was full of ruts and either dusty or a sea of mud until it was planked in 1856. Quite a few years later it was also condemned after the planks rotted. It was then paved with gravel.


Van Dyke (then called the territorial road and known as the Center Line road) was soon built. A base line had been set up across the state and the various future main roads drawn on maps. Van Dyke was a fairly straight dirt road by 1840. The name Van Dyke was from the family that had a big farm on Van Dyke further to the South and a member of that family James A Van Dyke had been elected mayor of Detroit. It was named that about 1885. Even later it was named the Earl memorial highway.


Sherwood Road was planked in 1856. This also became known as the State Road sometimes called the Center Line road which ran from Detroit North from Connor Creek past Harper and north along what is now called Sherwood to the Village of Warren. A settlement of Hickory Corners once exited at Connor Road, which followed Connor Creek to Jefferson.

Van Dyke was first a dirt trail, than a dirt road then planked, then redone with gravel, then in the early 1920’s had two concrete slabs 18 feet apart. About 1927 the citizens were petitioning the government to have the gravel center 18 foot section paved.

Van Dyke was a fairly straight dirt road by 1840.


The center of Warren Township was at eleven Mile Road and Van Dyke ) the Center Line Road. On the South East Corner there was built the Old Township hall.

Although Gratiot was the first paved cement road other areas caught up within a few years.  By 1950 practically every road in the city was paved with cement.


Center Line had a few saloons and they had spittoons. Some became speakeasys.

Where Harding is now located at Van Dyke there was a farm there with a big hand dug well.  All farms had hand dug wells as there was no drilling equipment.  I am told 30 feet was sufficient depth back then to provide water depending on locality.

The main occupation in Center Line was farming and raising livestock.


In 1863 Joseph Buechel built the first general store at Ten Mile and State Road (Sherwood).  This little store also contained the first post office.    Mail was probably not delivered until the railroads started leaving mail bags at Beebe’s Corners and Kunrod’s Corners. It was called the "Buechel House" and also contained a saloon and living quarters.  Buechel’s store was later moved to be near the St. Clement Church so busy farmers could go to church and then to the store on the same day.   Sophia Buechel was the first postmistress.

Schools of Center Line

In the pioneer days Southern Warren and Center Line had two schools the St Clement school, which was in existence before 1868 and the Public one room school. Both were most likely built with donated supplies and labor of the local farm families. They may have had two school raisings. This is where the local families got together to construct and raise the walls put up the roof beams, and roof the school. Both schools were a community effort. The St Clement School was located near the St Clement church on Church Road (later named Engleman) and Van Dyke. There were at least two nuns who were teachers. They were volunteers and served without pay. The Church provided meager living quarters for the nuns and little else. Then finally in 1892 they were paid $250 per year. (that computes to 68 cents a day and they sometimes gave money to others when help was needed) The St Clement School was enlarged in 1871, and again in 1921 when 600 children attended and 16 classrooms were added.


The public school was a basic one room structure with out houses and a wood shed. It had a pot belly wood stove with a long stove pipe that ran the length of the building in order to make the most of the heat as it served as a radiator. It had wooden benches for seats with carved desk tops. Later it had oil lamps perhaps replaced by electric bulbs for its last few years. It had a bell tower and most likely a bell. It was located on the North East corner of the State Road and Ten Mile Road. This became known as the Plunkett School because Mortimer Plunkett taught there alone for many years. It appears on a 1875 map as does the St Clement School. What happened to the Plunkett School bell? Did it go to Busch? Some questions may never be answered. When I searched for it in the bell tower in 1957, it was gone.

The following is quoted or paraphrased from Bert Hazen’s history and other sources.

The school records appear to start with the creation of School District No. 2 in 1899. The school board consisted of Bath Desgrandchsmps moderator, Peter Kaltz assessor and John Kaltz director. The school budget that year was $584.22. In 1899 they contracted with Jacob F Hartsig to furnish “eight cords of good sound soft wood to be piled in the wood shed”. “The members of the board wrote down nine rules of conduct the students were to obey. Records do not reveal that rule number seven was ever rescinded. It reads: ‘In case of disobedience the teacher shall inflict such punishment as he thinks proper and any scholar violating such comments shall be expelled from this school.” “The teacher in 1899 was Frank L. Bacon. How long he had been employed in District No. 2 prior to that time is not known. however we know that his successor, Mortimer W Plunkett was the only teacher between 1900 and 1916 and he taught pupils in all classes of all ages.” “Mortimer agreed to accept a salary of $333 to cover ten month teaching. In 1901 he received an increase of $27”. “He worked for $9 per week. It was quite apparent that he and the school board were pleased with each other.” “A painting and whitewashing of the school and the outbuildings cost $19.25 for eleven days painter’s wages and $3.43 for materials. John Kaltz charged far less to repair the school and its fences. His labor for ten days was $10.00.”

Busch School was constructed in 1921-1922. Property may have been donated by the Busch family. Busch School was named after Louis Busch who owned the property and who served on the school board from 1914 to 1948. A nine room addition was added in 1928.An interesting note was that it was a two story school and had a big pipe about 3 ½ feet in diameter that angled down from the second floor and then leveled off. This was the school’s fire escape. In later times the bell was removed from the bell tower. The teachers may have had hand held bells. I remember that the principal Gordon Motz at Busch had a hand turned mechanical siren for fire drills.

The Ellis primary four room school was built in 1926 after Mr. Ellis donated the land. All eight elementary grades were taught there by four teachers.

1925: At an annual meeting it was voted to change from a primary to a graded school district.

May Peck was hired and placed in charge of the school system. She taught continuously until 1958.” The peck elementary school, built in 1961 was named after her.

In 1927 Harry W Miller was hired as superintendent. Bernard Kaltz and Hugo Rinke were elected to the board. In 1928 a “temporary” frame two room school Grosebeck Elementary was built and served 22 years. It was named after Governor Alex Groesbeck. Also “an addition to Busch was made which included a gymnasium.”

In 1928 “the first of the famous Busch Bands was organized by Homer Hazelton.”

Mckinley and Macomb Park schools were built about 1928.

In “1932: The depression caused pay cuts and the issuance of script.”

In 1941 Frank Ladd donated property on Cunningham for a school site. “The neighborhood raised the money and purchased a temporary frame building. The board equipped and staffed it and the Ladd Elementary School came into existence.”

By1942 so many families moved in with children and that “Federal Government erected the Victory Elementary School and also equipped the ten rooms.” In that year voters also approved pupil transportation.

In 1950: “The Miller Elementary, named to honor the former superintendent, and the Sherwood Elementary Schools were completed.

Property was acquired near the Victory school in 1951. With voter approved money and with a Federal grant the Center Line Senior High School construction was begun on Arsenal Avenue in 1952.

1954 Center Line High School was opened, Groesbeck School was built, Ladd was built and other improvements were made including additions to Miller and Sherwood Schools. In 1957 Additions to Busch and Ladd were made and Victory and Ellis were remodeled. In 1960 saw the new May Peck Elementary, Mark Roose Elementary, Glenn Wolfe Junior High schools and addition to Center Line High School.


1927 The first municipal building was built in Center Line.

Civic Groups

As a poor child growing up in Center Line with a crippled mother and aged grandfather for parents I learned about the goodfellows one Christmas when they to our surprise brought us food. It was a great honor to me in later years to pay my dues back to them by donating to them and becoming a goodfellow myself. We sold papers, created food bags and delivered them to many needy families. Please buy a paper from them when you see them selling in the streets.


I will be adding histories of the other civic groups.


Center Line becomes a village

The little farming community wanted to have more services than the township was providing so they decided to form a village. 1925 Center Line became a village. The first village president was Bernard Wolfe in 1927.

In December of 1935 the Village of Center Line’s citizens voted to become a home rule city and the first mayor was Dr. Russel E. Lynch.  Roads were paved, sewers and sidewalks installed, and municipal services increased.

Fire protection

In March of 1926 they purchased a LaFrance fire engine.  It was a type 75, had a chain drive, and could pump 750 gallons of water per minute. The fire truck saw much service, and at one time was the only fire engine in the Warren township.  Its high axles and large wheels made it possible to navigate the "roads" of the township.


The Fire engine was first housed in George Theut’s garage on Engleman before the village was able to build a building to house it.  Center Line had a fine volunteer fire department for most of its urban history.  Your historian served with other brave volunteers under Chief Norman Smith.  We several times risked our lives in fiery and smoke filled situations.  I remember once going into a burning house to see if anyone was trapped in it.  Kids will hide in closets and under beds and die of the smoke.  Well my face mask fogged up and I couldn’t see so I backed out for a minute to clear the mask.  Upon going back in I discovered that if I had taken one more step on the first trip I would have stepped into the burning hole above the red hot furnace which was the cause of the fire.  I would have been the first volunteer dying in action. 


Center Line has been lucky in that no fireman has died.  We had some close calls like one I remember as a volunteer when at about 3 AM in the morning I was on top of Joe’s Bicycle Shop next to and looking down at red hot steel beams now glowing orange in color twisting in the heat and paint and turpentine cans exploding like bombs at the big Handy Andy Hardware fire.  We were trying to get water down into the fire from that angle when one of the tall ladder trucks which was pouring water onto the fire from the other side got blinded by the great amount of smoke and accidentally poured water on us who were on the Joe’s roof.  We literally had to drop our hoses and grab on to the shingles to keep from being swept down into the burning inferno.  Close calls were just part of our duty.  We should say a thankful prayer that we have good fire and police protection because for most of history there was none.  And before Warren got that first fire truck all a farmer could do was try to get out, get the animals out and watch it burn.  Once going wooden barns and houses could not be extinguished with a few buckets of water thrown on. Although settlers in the fort at Detroit successfully used wet swabs on long poles to put out fires set by flaming arrows from Indians.


Thank You Chrysler

After a big fire at the Chrysler plant in which Center Line sent in its one and only engine.  Chrysler gave Warren a couple of new Dodge truck bodies and gave Center Line one.


The last working farms were gone in by the 1960’s

Drains were needed and were built they ranged from 8 inches to 8 feet in diameter. In 1920 the Bear Creek went up Van Dyke with 24 inch tile to the Bear Creek.

The martin drain went from 54 inches to 84 inches.  A lift was constructed and many other mains and drains built and maintained.


In the pioneer days some Center Line resident’s children went to school in the area of Center Line.  Center Line had two schools the St Clement School, which was in existence before 1868 and the Public one room school.  Both were most likely built with donated supplies and labor of the local farm families.  They may have had two school raisings.  This is where the local families got together to construct and raise the walls put up the roof beams, and roof the school.  Both schools were a community effort.  The St Clement School was located near the St Clement church on Church Road (later named Engleman) and Van Dyke.  There were at least two nuns who were teachers.  They were volunteers and served without pay.  The Church provided meager living quarters for the nuns and little else.  The St Clement School was enlarged in 1871.


  Nearly all of the rooms in the schools had windows. Even the rest rooms had frosted windows and at least one that could be opened for ventilation..  At first the schools did not have or need electricity.  But later when they did, it did not matter if the power went out as teachers could still teach and children could read and write fine with the light that often came in from more than one direction.  Sorry to report that in this historian’s viewpoint the architects now days do not design school buildings for practical use.  Daylight is free.  Most newer schools ignore this.  Why not at least have skylights above inside rooms.  Why not have light coming from both sides like Center Line High School which won an award for its architecture.  This historian went to school there and at Busch school and we never had a problem reading when the power went off.  If the power goes out for even just a few minutes now days, they shut down the school.  The school bath rooms today have no windows and little ventilation.

Crime is so bad in many of today’s schools that bathrooms even the teachers are often locked.  Even teachers are assaulted now days.  I know of a substitute teacher that almost died when a student threw a heavy steel bar at him just missing his head.  The teacher had refused to give them two lunch periods and insisted that they do the work assigned by the regular teacher. Teachers now have a tough job just maintaining discipline.

What has changed in our culture that bathrooms have to be locked? 

Pardon the following historical observations.  Teachers are not allowed to “touch” students.  But the students often assault each other and almost nothing is done.  The teachers are afraid of the students, the Administration and School Board are afraid of lawsuits.  Many parents are now afraid of their kids.  And the kids, they aren’t afraid of anything, probably because they are allowed in our society to get away with almost anything.  There is little to no punishment for misbehaving.  If a parent spanks his kid in a store the police are called and charges are filed against the parent.  As a teacher who has taught every grade level in local schools and at college level I have heard many kids say, “My parents can’t punish me because I will call the police and say they hit me and they will have to go to court.”  Perhaps we need to work on better parenting and holding teenagers responsible for their actions.


The Boy Scout movement started in 1913 and the Macomb Council for the Boy Scouts started in 1925.  Scouts and scout leaders have provided countless good deeds and projects for the community.  They have helped many young people find good ideals for life.  They have also saved many lives.  A boy scout saved my life when I was a child.


The whole country was affected by the Great depression of the 1930's.  Joblessness was very high. This hit everyone very hard.  Most people just had to do without a lot of things they were used to.  Banks closed.  President Franklin Roosevelt instituted several programs to help get things going again.  The WPA Works Progress Administration program provided public jobs.  Many people benefited from these.


Busch School was built around 1922 and later added to.  The teachers expected students to learn or at least pay attention.  If a student misbehaved the teacher could call the parent and most of the time the kid got a talking to or a lickin and was well behaved the rest of the year.  Today the teachers sometimes do not have the backing of parents or even of administration.  One day as a substitute teacher I was reprimanded severely by principal J.  He told me that I had falsely accused a student of damaging school property.  I tried to explain but he wouldn’t listen.  Two students had lied during role call and used absent students names.  The class went along with it and as a substitute I did not know the students names.  Then one painted red paint on the absent students art project saying that it was his own.  The other student was busy cutting up thick poster board into strips for his art project and he assured me that he was creating a special art project.  The rest of the class went along with the deception.  I wasn’t going to take the reprimand laying down so I made my business to visit the regular teacher when she returned.  When I told her what had happened and had her look at the evidence she was shocked.  I was proven accurate in my report but the students that destroyed the other student’s art project and destroyed expensive art supplies were never held responsible for their actions as the principal did not take any action on it. And he never apologized to me for his charging me falsely.


Today if a teacher tries to call a parent most of the time they are not at home or the parent tells the teacher that it is the teachers problem or tells the teacher off.  As a historic observation I believe the teaching was more effective when the teacher had authority to use a willow switch or paddle on rare occasion.  Now days kids can disrupt classes, interrupt the teacher, use foul language, steal things, hit other kids and get away with it.  And this lack of self discipline is most often rooted in peer pressure, lack of proper parenting and as a result of negative values learned from the real modern educator of young people, the television.  Young people spend more time watching TV than they do in school and they learn only a small percentage of the time they are in school because the teacher must spend so much time on discipline or keeping everyone busy.  The “bad” kids get lots of attention and the “good” kids sometimes get neglected.  Last historic observation on education is that too many parents today have too placed too little priority on their children’s education.  In the 2000’s too many parents are allowing their children to spend thousands of hours on morally lacking, educationally lacking entertainment.

Our Libraries

Both Center Line and Warren public libraries were started when local citizens got together collected books and found a place to place them. In Center Line a group of men formed the Men's Club of Center Line. This was in 1928 before there were any Rotary or Lions clubs etc. They accumulated about 500 volumes. The library was housed in the basement of the Center Line Community Church which later became the Presbyterian Church. It was housed later to several stores then in the Center Line recreation building. Finally it moved to its present building on Weingartz on land that belonged to farmer Michael Weingartz..

Recreation

In the late forties Center Line had things young people could do.  But this paid off as Center Line had some of the lowest delinquency rates in the nation and was known as a good place to live.  Ronie’s drive in on Van Dyke was a popular place.  There were no fast food paces yet.  There were bowling lanes.  Johny’s recreation was a pool parlor. There were the beaches to go to in the summer.  I remember riding my bike down Van Dyke to swim in the Lipkie pool.  Boys and girls in scouting went on trips all of the time.  We went swimming, camping, biking and on field trips.  We saw the stars at the Cranbrook Planetarium.  We visited Marygrove College for Aviation merit badge. We went on the big boats to Put-in-bay and Bob-lo.  There were carnivals.  Each year the Circus came to town.  We went to the local and State Fairs.  As scouts we learned to do good deeds.  We learned First Aid and Emergency Preparedness.  We helped save lives in auto accidents.  The scouts went to riding stables or D-A Scout Ranch and rode horses.  Scouts went on field trips to farms and parks.  Some even did mountain climbing.  We did canoeing on the Ausable River.  An of course families went on car day trips, picnics, and vacations.  And there were several places in Center Line to buy Ice-cream.  As a poor kid I picked up pop bottles and got 2 cents each.  I went to Bricklys on Van Dyke and bought a nice cup of ice cream with a wooden spoon for 5 cents. Homer Hazelton’s Drug store had a great soda fountain.  They made many good things there.  Sometimes Homer would sit down at his organ and play some music.  They had books and magazines there also.  We got our first Boy Scout handbooks there.  Even today the Boy Scout Handbook is packed with things every boy, girl, man and woman in should know such as first aid, CPR, reading maps, and basic survival knowledge.  Tom Pounder of the Center Line Recreation even had a travel bus to visit interesting places.


Van Dyke was first a dirt trail, than a dirt road then planked, then redone with gravel, then in the early 1920’s had two concrete slabs 18 feet apart.  About 1927 the citizens were petitioning the government to have the gravel center 18 foot section paved.

Although Gratiot was the first paved cement road other areas caught up within a few years.  By 1950 practically every road in the city was paved with cement.


Theater

There were theater groups in Center Line.  In 1927 a theater was constructed on Van Dyke in Center Line at a cost of $110,000.  It also had an $8,000 pipe organ.  It may have become the Liberty Movie Theater later.  Alex M Schoenherr was the president, George D Briggs secretary, George Walsh assistant secretary.  The Weigand family was also a stockholder in this venture. Farther south on Van Dyke near Nine Mile road was the Van Dale a little storefront theater that showed movies.


In the 1930's the population was 2,600. 1930-45 The movie industry was at its peak.  The Liberty Movie theater built in Center Line on the west side of Van Dyke just south from St Clement Church.  Who owned that.  Does anyone have a picture of it?  How much were the tickets and what did you see? 

And down a little further North was the bowing alley.

Just North of the bowing alley on the West side of Van Dyke was Ma Zott’s, a favorite eating place of that time.

Ben Grobbel was sexton of St Clement Church.

During World War II, the Tank Arsenal (the "Arsenal of Democracy") was built. There was a big temporary trailer park at 11 Mile and Van Dyke. This was followed by the establishment of the GM Tech Center in 1949, which used 330 acres out of 1000 acres of GM owned land in the center of Warren.  The GM Tech Center employs over 20,000 people.  Many people in Center Line and Warren had jobs at those two places. .  As late as 1968 every once in awhile a tank would be pulled out on to Lawrence Ave in southern Warren to test things.  This was done mostly after dark. Imagine the surprise to a speeding driver when he suddenly found himself quickly closing in on a huge camouflaged colored tank with a cannon pointed directly at him.


New stores and businesses replaced old as a rural community became urbanized. The population of Center Line In 1940 was 3,200.


The USO hall was built in 1941. It opened in 1942 serving US servicemen.. The Tank arsenal was beginning to be built at that time also.  Many of the workers moved into Center Line.

In World War Two several local sons were lost.  Many sacrifices were made by families.


Mysterious big tower

What was that mysterious big tower behind the Brick St Clement Church? It had a Windmill next to it and was two stories high. See the pictures of it on the Center Line History website macombhistory.us


The Chief Norman Smith

They don't come any better than Norm Smith. He has helped many people, saved lives been a dedicated civil servant and wonderful grandfather. This historian can also add he has been a good friend. He shows the true Christian spirit and is an example for us all. I remember him as a Center Line Goodfellow who brought needed food to my poor family at Christmas time. (My mother was crippled and disabled and my father was absent and not supporting) I remember when as a boy scout he helped me with my firemanship merit badge. He has overseen and protected the St Clement Cemetery for years and also has done other community work. Norm Smith also was a great source of information on Center Line History. I know of other good deeds he has done.

With increasing population the local home wells were beginning to not keep up with water demands.  Also the local system of private out houses and septic tanks was just not suitable to an urban setting.  Working with county officials a drainage district was formed and Center Line tied into the nine mile sewage drain to carry sewage to Lake St Clair. 

In the 1950s Center Line population had increased greatly and the area had become urbanized. Farms had been replaced by subdivisions. The current roads were built. With the building of the roads also went drains and water and gas mains. Big drains were built to handle the runoff from the street and housing drains.


More electric, water and gas utilities were installed. More telephone poles and services were installed and later improved in a constant cycle of improvement.

Homer Hazelton’s drug store had an ice cream parlor as did many others.


At first there were no fast food places, just a few restaurants and bars. But Americans liked their cars and soon drive-ins sprang up. A&W had delicious root beer which was made of real sassafras not some imitation. A & W and Ronnie’s drive in on Van Dyke were popular There were car hops that came to your car and took the order.. You parked your car, rolled down your window and a waitress would place a tray on the window with the drinks and food. If you wanted more service you flashed your lights.


There were several bowling alleys in Warren. The one at Nine mile and Van Dyke is still there. Ma Zotts on Van Dyke in Center Line was next to one also.

Each year the dirt streets were treated with something to keep down the dust.

More and more streets were being paved with cement.

Until the late 1940s the ice man still brought ice in a big horse drawn wagon with a huge tarp on top. The kids loved him because he would give you a chip of ice to suck on and you felt like you really got something especially in the hot summer. But this was soon replaced by the ice factory down on Van Dyke near Nine mile. Or you could buy a block of ice by putting money in a machine. Many people still needed them for their ice boxes which as folks could afford them were replaced by refrigerators. If you forgot to empty the pan under the ice box and you walked up to it with your bare feet you had a cold shocking surprise.

You could even work on your car in your driveway without someone giving you a ticket. Now it is illegal to work on your own car. Where has our freedom gone?Until the late 1940s the ice man still brought ice in a big horse drawn wagon with a huge tarp on top. The kids loved him because he would give you a chip of ice to suck on and you felt like you really got something especially in the hot summer. But this was soon replaced by the ice factory down on Van Dyke near Nine mile. Or you could buy a block of ice by putting money in a machine. Many people still needed them for their ice boxes which as folks could afford them were replaced by refrigerators. If you forgot to empty the pan under the ice box and you walked up to it with your bare feet you had a cold shocking surprise.

You could even work on your car in your driveway without someone giving you a ticket. Now it is illegal to work on your own car. Where has our freedom gone?

Some local businesses in Center Line area in the 1950s were:

Art Grissom Motor sales 24231 Van Dyke

Motor City Furniture 22900 21” TV $159.95

HI neighbor Cleaners 21708 Federal

Van Dyke Automotive 23330 Van Dyke

Van Dyke Clothers Van Dyke at 9 Mile Rd

Stilwell Press 25512 Van Dyke

Rivard Bros 20955 Van Dyke Baseline

George Hairdresser 23522 S n of 9

John Knapp Realty 25140 Van Dyke N of 10 Mile

Richard & Trule Tool & Die 2751 Van Dyke

Gietzen Service 25445 Van Dyke

Jos Rivard Appliances & Sport Shop Gun Repair 21045 Van Dyke

Memphis Grocery 6898 Lozier at Memphis

Dr R Paul Zusman Optometrist 23012 Van Dyke

Tara Drive in Van Dyke at 11 Mile Rd

Pastime Lanes

Grosbeck Flowers 24416 Van Dyke

Robinson Department Store 25511 Van Dyke

CF Gibbs Lumbar 25135 Van Dyke

Boulton Hardware 22740 Van Dyke at Maxwell

Sunbeam Cleaners & Laundry 24817 Van Dyke

Italian Singing Sams Grill 5649 E 8 Mile 2blks W of Mound

Voh's Plumbing & Heating 24650 Van Dyke

C Sway Self Serve 26526 Mound

Flaina & Sons Paint & Hardware 26324 John R

Hoste Bros Electric Construction 25311 Van Dyke

E C Nolan Co Contractors 8121 Warren Blvd

Motor City Boat Shop 23044 Van Dyke

Jerome's Smart Feminine Apparel 23066 Van Dyke

Warren's Drive In

Brown Brothers Dairy 24649 Van Dyke

Liberty Cleaners and Tailors Dryers

Zeck's Pharmacy 24408 Van Dyke

Ross Barber Shop

Margaret Lawrence Hair Stylist 24445 Van Dyke

Center Market 25504 Van Dyke

White's Laundry 25619 Van Dyke

Metlers Delicatessen 26312 Van Dyke

Western Auto 24809 Van Dyke

Lazoen Hay & Feed 25945 Van Dyke

Van's Pharmacy 25501 Van Dyke

Ford & Killeen Funeral Home 25531


And in the 1950 there was a real sense of community and caring. Most people treated each other with respect. Families did things together. It seemed that even most teenagers were respectful. Crime was very low. All in all the 1950s were a pretty good time to live.

Warren had just become a city and continued tremendous growth in population, building, job growth and in expansion of infrastructure. New homes were built. New streets were created. GM was growing and expanding creating thousands of jobs. The automotive industry was growing and with it many new tool and die shops located in the Center Line area. With all of the new jobs, building and population growth many new stores restaurants, service businesses and fast food places located in Center Line.

Center Line may have been the fastest growing community in the United States.


There was tremendous economic growth. Center Line became much more urbanized.

Constant change in Center Line

  The Center Line area is in a constant state of change with new buildings and businesses replacing old ones. 

Perhaps we can learn from the "good old days" and apply it to the future for a better life for all.  Perhaps we can have again Clean Air, Peace, Justice, The spirit of community and good ice cream.


Warren Township Supervisors

Samuel Gibbs 1837-1838

John Barton 1839

Henry Lorraway 1840

John Barton 1841

George Bolam 1842-1845

Alonzo Haight 1846

George Bolam 1847-1848

Alonzo Haight 1849

John Beebe 1850-1853

George Corey 1854-1856

George Bolam 1857-1859

Louis Groesbeck 1860-1862

Joseph Daconnick 1863-1864

Louis Groesbeck 1865-1866

Charles Groesbeck 1867-1870

Louis Groesbeck 1871-1878

Paul Lefevre 1879-1886

Jacob Hartsig 1887-1897

Julius Lefevre 1898-1902

Jacob Hartsig 1903-1904

Ferdinand Grobbel 1905-1914

Jacob Hartsig 1915-1917

Ferdinand Grobbel 1918

Bernard Wolf 1919-1921

Edward Jacob 1922-1925

Franck J Licht 1926-1931

Frank Wiegand 1932-1935

Chris Bristow 1936 (Died June 1936)

William Strich 1936 (appointed)

Frank Wiegand 1937

William Strich 1938-1939

Frank Wiegand 1940

Earl Tallman 1941-1942

Two year terms begin

Earl Tallman 1943-1946

William Strich 1947-1948

Arthur J Miller 1949-1956


Warren Township Clerks

Alonzo Haight 1837

Daniel Denison 1838-1839

George Corey 1840-1841

Loring Hawley 1842-1848

George Corey 1849-1851

William Groesbeck 1852-1853

Louis Groesbeck 1854-1856

Charles Groesbeck 1857-1860

Francis Groesbeck 1861-1864

N Hollister Brown 1865-1866

William Enright 1867 Removed by Township Board 11/12/67

John W Kingscott 1867 appointed

John Kaltz 1868

John W Kingscott 1869

Royal Jenny 1870

John Kaltz 1871-1872

George Adair 1873

Paul Lefevre 1874-1877

Henry Miller 1878-1883

Jacob Hartsig 1884-1886

John Kaltz 1887-1898

Frank wiegand 1899

George Schuster 1900 resigned May 3, 1900

John Buechel 1900 appointed

John Buechel 1901+1903

Otto Jacob 1904

John buechel 1905-1921

John wiegand 1922-1924

Irvin Keppleman 1925-1932

John Buechel 1933-1935

William Lawson 1936-1942

Two Year terms follow

Hildegarde M Lowe 1949-1956


Warren township Treasurers

Alonzo Haight 1839

Loring Hawley 1840-1841

Avery Denison 1842

Cornelius Tehan 1843-1845

Samuel Jones 1852

Loring Hawley 1853

Joseph Jobin 1854

Prosper LaDuke 1855

Frederick Wacker 1856 failed to qualify

William Hartsig 1856 appointed

William Hartsig 1857-1858

Arnold Harwood 1859

John W Kingscott 1860-1861

John Wordhoff 1862-1866 resigned Sept 1866

Peter Rotarius 1866 appointed

Peter Rotarius 1867

George H Brinkers 1868

Louis Hartsig 1869-1871

Martin Hoffman 1872-1874

Vincent Tremble 1875-1877

Matthias Hoffman 1878-1879

Joseph Rinke 1885-1886

Julius Lefevre 1887-1888

Joseph Rinke 1889-1890

Ferdinand Grobbel 1891-1892

Julius Lefevre 1893-1894

Francis Miller 1895-1896

George burr 1897-1898

Edward Peck 1899-1900

Jacob Hartsig 1901-1902

Peter Schoenherr 1903-1904

Michael Smith 1905-1906

William Hartsig 1907-1908

Edward Peck 1909-1910

Joseph Trombley 1911-1912

Alex Koehler 1913-1914

Otto Jacob 1915-1916

John Rinke 1917-1920

Anthony Kaltz 1921-1922

Theodore Henkel 1923-1924

A. C. Lyons 1925

Joseph Wiegand 1926

William Qualman 1927-1928

Edward Jacob 1929-1930

Henry Kuhn 1931-1932

David Smith 1933-1935

Frank Licht 1936-1940

Frank Wiegand 1941-1946

Two year terms follow

Frank Wiegand 1943-1946

Ralph Hartsig 1947-1948

William A Shaw 1949-1956


Mayors of Center Line

Mayors of Center Line

The first mayor was Dr. Russel E. Lynch. 1935 - 1942. Who brought your historian into the world.

R. L Isbister 4/6/42 4/1/46

J. L Eisele 4/1/46 4/5/54

A. G. Hazen 4/5/54 4/4/60

J. L Eisele 4/4/60 4/6/64

S. Okros 4/6/64 12/30/68

P. J. Tranchida 1/13/69 11/3/81

M. A. Zielinski 11/3/81 11/8/93

L. J. Nardi Jr. 11/8/93 11/4/97

M. A. Zielinski 1997 - 2009

David Hanselman 2009


Did the water in Center Line actually burn?

The water from some wells had some natural gas in it. I remember lighting a match, hearing a woossh and seeing a brief flash of fire. When a test drilling was done for the Center Line Park Tower at 10 Mile Road and Van Dyke natural gas came up the drill hole and as a volunteer in the Fire Department at that time I remember that we had a tough time getting it out. Several people died in the village when natural gas got into their homes. And there were reports of buildings exploding back in those old days. Now a foul smell is added to the natural gas we use. But the pure natural gas has no odor and is very dangerous. Never smoke around wells.

The area that is now Center Line area was thousands of years ago a tropical swamp, and tropical like jungles with huge plants that eventually formed millions of barrels of gas and oil that are currently below us now.

Can history lead to stimulating questions that can alter today’s world? Try this single example. In 2003 nearly 100,000 barrels of oil came from a well site in Macomb County. This proves there is oil under us. But the profit is being given away to a private Canadian company rather then benefiting citizens of Macomb County. Why are we paying high prices for gas and oil when we are sitting on millions of gallons which the citizens of Macomb County own?


In 1928 at a cost of $297,000 water service from Detroit was started in Warren.

Great depression Joblessness

Just after World War I Michigan's industries were doing fairly good especially the automobile. But other industries suffered cutbacks particularly mining and agriculture. European markets for American food contracted and domestic demand dropped. Michigan Farmers were hard hit. “The economic depression which stifled farmers during the 1920s spread like a pall over the entire economy of the state.” (John Kern 51) Then the stock market crashed in October 1929 which precipitated a slump in productivity which lasted until World War II. (Kern 52)

Back at that time the Banks had a large percentage of their assets in mortgages and bonds that had become worthless. Government officials ordered bank holidays/

Farm families could survive by eating the food the could not sell but industrial workers suffering an unemployment rate of 50% with no unemployment compensation were starving and losing their homes and apartments. The average Center Line family was hard hit by the depression. They had to do without things because they did not have funds to buy them. Some families had trouble buying necessities such as food because of lack of income which was not their fault. Many of us older folks heard stories from our grandparents about the terrible times they went thru.


There was a change in attitude by many people that now allowed for the facts that in these more modern times it sometimes happens that people lose income without it being their fault and sometimes cannot find jobs because jobs are not available.


The predecessor to Detroit mayor Frank Murphy had been recalled because he used mounted police to disperse unemployed workers with clubs when they demonstrated near Detroit's City Hall. Murphy served hot meals to unemployed men at local fire halls and opened an abandoned warehouse to shelter the homeless. He and other mayors asked President Hoover for help but were refused. This led to the election of Franklin Roosevelt who provided economic assistance. He started a Civil Works Administration which employed a half a million Michigan workers on public works projects like building of restrooms and other buildings in parks, train stations, housing, roads, planting trees around the state, etc. It worked it provided jobs which got the economy going again. “Government, labor, and business worked together with volunteers and troops during the first half of the 1940s.” (John Kern 57)

The government created thousands of jobs thru The Civilian Conservation Corps camps recruited unemployed youths to work at projects. Many projects were completed that benefited the public such as reforestation projects, cleaning streams, building parks, constructing roads etc.


Can it happen again? The whole country was affected by the Great depression of the 1930's. Joblessness was very high. This hit everyone very hard. Most people just had to do without a lot of things they were used to. Banks closed. President Franklin Roosevelt instituted several programs to help get things going again. The WPA Works Progress Administration program provided public jobs. Many people benefited from these.

1920 There were still no good roads in the community. No I am not being negative. They were dust bowls when dry and seas of mud when wet and they smelled from the animal manure. There was little planned drainage so there were lakes where roads were sometimes. Van Dyke, paved with crushed stone, was both rough and dusty. Ten Mile Road was a narrow one track dirt road which was practically impassable in the spring. Nevertheless, people from the city as well as retiring farmers were attracted to the community by the convenience of church and stores with transportation to Detroit. They made their homes here and Center Line grew.


Mail

The first post route was established in 1801. In 1804 first post office opened in Detroit. In 1820 the second post road was established between Detroit and Mt Clemens via Pontiac. The mail was carried by in saddle bags by horse and rider. To Saginaw in 1823. In 1828 postal route between Fort Gratiot at Port Huron and Ann Arbor. The first mail carried on wheels was from Detroit to Ohio in 1827. (Farmer p880) The mail was carried on horseback, by stage coach, by boat, and by train.

Mt Clemens deliveries started in 1821.

The mail usually arrived on just one day in a week. For example the Mt Clemens mail arrived by Saturday at 7 PM. In 1836 it took 14 days and nights to send a letter to New York City. In 1843 it was down to nine days. Except in winter. Postage ranged from six cents for under 30 miles. to 25 cents for over 450 miles. 1851 postage was dropped to 3 cents. (Farmer p880)

Telegraph line to Saginaw in 1863. p885

1838 the Pontiac & Detroit RR went out of Detroit out 12 miles in the direction of Pontiac. The first engine was the Sherman Stevens was used in 1839 before that horse drawn cars were used.

There were very few horses for private use until the 1840’s. (Farmer p887)

First public stage from Detroit to Mt Clemens started in 1822.

1912- Village delivery

1930 Mail to house delivery.

In 1900 the population of Warren Township was 2567.

In 1920 Warren had 23 businesses.


Automobiles

The invention of the automobile affected the daily life of twentieth-century Americans more than any other technological development. At the center of this change was Michigan, which became the nation’s automobile capital less than twenty years after the “horseless carriage” made its first appearance. On March 6, 1896, Charles King became the first Michiganian to operate a gasoline-powered “horseless carriage” when he drove his four-cylinder vehicle several blocks down Woodward Avenue in Detroit. Later that year, Detroit’s Henry Ford and Lansing’s Ransom E. Olds drove their horseless carriages. Within a few years, the lightweight, inexpensive Curved Dash Olds became the first automobile to be manufactured in any significant

numbers. 5,000 by 1904. Olds also stimulated other Michigan manufacturers.

Henry Ford experimented and sold several models before the famous introduction in 1908 of the Model T. Ford's idea was to make a car for everyone that would be durable, easy to operate, economical to maintain, and simple to repair. The car, which only came in black, boasted a four cylinder, twenty-horsepower engine that reached speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. In 1908 5,000 were made and sold for $850. With the introduction of the assembly line at the Highland Park plant in 1914 a quarter of a million Motel T fords were produced and sold for $490 each.. Two years later the output was over half a million sold for $369. (Kern46) Over fifteen million Model Ts were sold, making it one of the most important cars in automobile history. Some were even used on farms for tractors.


In 1908 Flint’s William Durant founded the General Motors Company. Offering Americans a range of vehicles,

General Motors became the world’s largest producer of automobiles by the 1920s. Several other car manufacturers sold cars: Hudson, Packard, Buick, Chevrolet, Dodge and others.


Women Get Right to Vote

After a lot of work women finally won the right to vote in 1920. The Michigan state constitution was amended to give women the right to vote in 1918 and in 1920 the 19th amendment to the US Constitution gave them the right to vote nationally.


Electricity began coming in in Warren and Center Line about 1930.

Detroit Edison was granted permission to set up a house numbering system in 1931.

With increasing population the local home wells were beginning to not keep up with water demands. Also the local system of private out houses and septic tanks was just not suitable to an urban setting. Working with county officials a drainage district was formed and Warren tied into the nine mile sewage drain to carry sewage to Lake St Clair. Water service from the City of Detroit began in 1928

Gerald Neil noted in his history that there were 2449 votes for repeal of the 18 amendment and 193 votes against its repeal. He states “Within two months twenty beer and wine licenses were granted by the Township Board.

1930 ten percent of workers now held clerical jobs and 95% of these were women.

1930 Birdseye first frozen foods marketed.

1930-45 movie industry at its peak. Liberty Movie theater in Center Line

1930 Women in the American workforce: 24,8% of all women; 50.5% of unmarried women; 11.7% of married women.

1946 microwave oven invented but not in most homes until 30 or so years later.

1950 automatic washing machines in common use.

The local paper was the Star Reporter published by Dorothy and Ray Holmes.

Later the Tri City Progress came in. It had a Green cover.

Later this was superseded by the Macomb Daily.


What did we do without the idiot box?

You could go on picnics. The Air was clean then not polluted like it is now. (We also didn’t have thousands dying of pollution as we do now.) You could see for miles. We went to the country and rode horses. We went on hay rides. Many of us went camping in tents. The campgrounds were clean then and not crowded. We swam in clean lakes. We went canoeing on clean rivers that had edible fish. We went on train rides that went almost everywhere. You could take a train across the whole USA then. They were not crowded. Wonderful window seats for everyone. Sleeping cars. Dining Cars. Vista Dome cars and best of all Dining Cars where you could enjoy nice food and see wonderful scenery. You could ride Steam powered trains. You could leave your stuff on the train and not worry about anyone stealing it. Looking out the window one could see forests, farm fields, farms, farmers working their fields, dairy cattle, brooks, wild animals like bear, turkeys, quail, pigeons etc. We enjoyed reading interesting books. And wonderful steam boats. We traveled on the Detroit Cleveland boats. The boat the Greater Detroit was a marvel to travel on. It had fine dining, cabins, music, and those huge steam engines which were a wonder to behold. Or one could just relax and watch the interesting scenery as one traveled the big rivers. Some of these boats had big side wheels that propelled them like the Greater Detroit. My grandfather took me to Put-in-Bay where I learned about Admiral Perry. I loved those boats. There were live bands that played real music you could sing or dance to. Sometimes there was a stiff breeze coming at you from the bow as the huge platform streamed across the water while the band played in the background. When that big whistle sounded you jumped and the other boats would reply with their whistles. There was good food and dancing in the aisles. I loved watching the big steam engine run in the center of the boat. Big pistons powered those huge rods which turned a huge propeller shaft. There were huge fork like things that rode on the propeller shaft. Never did figure out what they did. There were the trips to Bob-lo island and the amusement park there with rides and attractions for everyone. Then the fires of the old boats burning in Lake St Clair as they were being torn down for scrap.

We had forth of July parades and picnics at the city parks. There were band and orchestra concerts on a platform next to the Warren Township hall on Van Dyke and 11 Mile which was a dirt road. There were several local bands. American Legion, and the Warren Community Band were two. Later as schools became bigger school concerts would also be presented. Of course local schools had foot ball games and other sports. . We went to great churches and saw beautiful stained glass windows and listened to really great organs. Food was great. We visited the State Fair saw the animals and agricultural things, rode the rides. And you didn't have to worry about getting robbed or mugged there unlike in later years if you visited anyone in Detroit. As a boy I entered my Angora rabbits into competition and won a blue ribbon. That got me in to the fair for a week free. My mother displayed the wool items she had spun on her spinning wheel. We went to the Cat and Dog shows. My cat won a blue ribbon also.

Summer time was circus and carnival time. We had lots of fun riding rides and seeing the circuses. Local band concerts were common. Sometimes they were farmers bands, or Community bands or school bands.

We went to the Belle Isle Conservatory to see the beautiful flowers and plants. We visited the aquarium. We heard the carillon play the bells. We went to Band concerts where the Detroit Symphony played. We watched the freighters go by us on the Detroit River, Visited the lighthouse and the Children’s Zoo. I loved the Scott fountain at night with all of the pretty lighting. It was safe then. You didn’t take your life in your hands as you do now on Belle Isle or now in Detroit which is known as The Murder Capital of the USA. My daughter was hit by a car there and they even stol her drivers license. When I came to help the police told us to just tow the car as soon as we cjould ane not stay around. Then the Police stated that they don't even stick around to make reports in this neighborhood and took off without making a report. Hundreds of innocent people have been murdered in Detroit. Something about the culture there. That is why tens of thousands of white people left Detroit. It wasn't race, it was the crime, danger and low morals. We went canoeing there also but I liked the Au Sable river better except that there were no porcupines to chew on your oars at night and no bears to defend yourself against. And we made a lot of trips to see other places. We loved to travel in our car. There were big amusement parks nearby also. I liked to fly so decided to start working on my pilot’s license. I loved flying as it was a wonder world up in the sky, beautiful scenery, flying thru the clouds, over then, under them and one didn’t even have to keep ones eyes on the road or hands on the wheel. I loved to set the plane up so it would fly itself and I could enjoy the beautiful scenery. I remember in my five flying trips across the Atlantic Ocean seeing the curvature of the Earth the magnificent cloud formations, the beautiful Earth below. The Earth is really a space ship. Spaceship Earth, and it has no lifeboats. We must take care of it and preserve it for future generations.


The good old Days

Ice-cream cups and cones were 5 Cents. Pop bottles were 2 cents. As a boy I just had to round up 3 pop bottles to get an Ice cream. Now days it takes 10 or more cans. Something is wrong now when both spouses working can’t support a family at a level that just one dad working an average job could in the old days.

In 1950 many people went fishing. I want fishing with my grandfather. We caught Perch. I was taught how to clean them and cook them. We ate fish that we caught. The water was pure and the fish were safe to eat unlike now. We went fishing in the lakes. I remember going fishing on lake St Clair both summer and winter on the ice. We did not own a freezer but rented a frozen food locker at the frozen food locker place located in a store on Van Dyke and Menge. just south of 11 Mile.

In 2004 the government warned us again not to eat fish from Lake St Clair and other Great Lakes as the water is still polluted and the fish contain poison.

The Korean War also cost local lives.

The Township was becoming less and less rural and more urban with manufacturing industries popping up and outside industries moving in. During World War II, the Tank Arsenal (the "Arsenal of Democracy") was built. There was a trailer city at 11 mile and Van Dyke. There were Quanset huts around. GM Tech Center started in 1949, which used 330 acres out of 1000 acres of GM owned land in the center of Warren. The GM Tech Center employed over 20,000 people.


In 1950 Warren when became a charter township the population was about 43,000.

In 1952 a bond issue was passed to build a sewage treatment plant and install sewers.

The early 1950s locally in Warren looking over the area: The wilderness which had existed for centuries was gone. One could still see both dirt and paved roads and lots of farmers fields used for crops and the raising of livestock. Warren Village was still rural. But along Van Dyke a building boom was continuing. The farmer’s fields were gone. A huge tank plant and many related buildings had been built in the 1940s. The United States had been drawn into World War II in a big way. Being located near Detroit and on a railroad line Warren was an excellent location for a needed tank plant. The building of the Warren Detroit Tank Arsenal in the 1940s created hundreds of jobs. New housing had been built. Such as Cramer Homes, Center Line Gardens on Mound and a trailer park city near 11 mile road and Van Dyke. I remember looking across the area and seeing fields nearly everywhere we went in Center Line . Developers turned the farmer’s fields into subdivisions as the demand for housing increased. Weier farm on Bunert road was not affected and continued farming.

Most grocery stores were small family owned places like Frank Peck at Chicago and Mound roads and they were owned by Americans not foreigners. The biggest ones in the area was A&Ps. And the gas stations were owned by Americans and you got serviced free. When you pulled into a gas station a man came out pumped your gas, cleaned your windows checked your oil all at no extra charge. They did not rip you off like the foreign owners and corrupt corporations do today.


In the 1950s

Warren population had increased greatly and the area had become urbanized. Farms had been replaced by subdivisions. The current paved roads were built. With the building of the roads also went drains and water and gas mains. Big drains were built to handle the runoff from the street and housing drains.

More electric, water and gas utilities were installed. More telephone poles and services were installed and later improved in a constant cycle of improvement.


What did we do in the 50s? Things then were mainly family centered. The Father worked, the mother took care of the home with the children helping. They ate meals together. In the evening the black and white television brought in decent entertainment. America had a love affair with the automobile. And then there were the cars. Wonderful cars. Wow how we loved to cruise around. We would go to Ronnie’s drive in on Van Dyke or to A&W for root beer which was made of real sassafras not some imitation. There were car hops that came to your car and took the order. Later they placed your order on a tray that attached to your car window. If you wanted more service you flashed your lights. And there were drive in movies where you parked your car and looked at a big screen. Sometimes people were snuck in in the trunk. Most people had their windows down but some cars had their windows up and the windows were all steamed up inside. In the winter they even had in car heaters. When it got to cold we went to several of the theaters in the area. Center Line had the Liberty Theater with its $8,000 organ, The Motor City Theater was on Van Dyke at Nine Mile (Later it became a skating rink), There was the Nortown at Seven Mile and Van Dyke, The Ryan at Nine Mile and Ryan by the Bear creek and many others. We saw How the West was won on a screen that seemed to wrap all around us. Wow what great memories. There were lots of bowling allies in Center Line and Warren.

There were several bowling alleys in Center Line . The one at Nine mile and Van Dyke is still there. Ma Zotts on Van Dyke was next to one also. We went to local band concerts and band concerts on Bell Isle. We went on cruses on the BobLo boats and The Put in Bay

We went to metro beach and to parks such as the little roadside park up M53 by Romeo.

Homer Hazelton’s drug store had an ice cream parlor as did many others.

Each year the dirt streets were treated with something to keep down the dust.

More and more streets were being paved with cement.


This time is now referred to as BG

(before Google). People went to the local libraries to get information.

Has the economy of abundance replaced the economy of scarcity?

Also what a shocker the USA is not interdependent with other countries.


Television was decent at all times of the day

George Pariot showed travelogs by Stan Midgley, Don Cooper, Dennis Cooper and others.

You asked for it was on TV. Soupy Sales was on at lunch time with pies in the face clean but korny for the kids. There was a pool parlor Johnny’s recreation on Van Dyke.

There were several carnivals through out the warm months and we could see Ringling brothers Circus at the State Fair Grounds where there was a huge Stove almost as big as a house. We couldn’t miss the State Fair which had many things of interest. And they did not gouge you for parking and everything else as they do now. It is probably to pay for all of the security. Things got so bad in Detroit they called it Murder City and now it is so bad that they have to have police officers ride on the buses to protect the children from the low moral non law abiding brutes there. Thousands of people moved out of Detroit not because of race but because of crime and break ins. My teacher's 12 year old boy was murdered at Cobo Hall for 27 cents of pocket change. Children in Center Line don't need police officers to protect them on our school buses because we have decent law abiding citizens.

Scout troops did good deeds for the community and presented good moral values to kids.

The recreation department had activities for all ages.

All over Center Line sidewalks were being installed, and municipal services had to increase due to population demands. Edison set up an office on Van Dyke between 10 and 11 mile roads and exchanged light bulbs for free. The old taverns became modern bars and there were a lot of bars in Center Line . There were more bars than churches.

New stores and businesses replaced old as a rural community became urbanized.

1950 Television overtakes radio and movies in popularity.

Also a multitude of other improvements were made.

1950 Women in the American workforce: 29% of all women; 46.3% of unmarried women; 23% of married women.

One could have chickens, with fresh eggs, rabbits or other live stock without someone coming by and giving you a ticket.

The milk men also made his rounds using their special trucks. There were Twin Pines and Sealtest Dairys..


Gerald Neil stated about Warren “During the early 1950’s it became known as the largest, most heavily populated, and wealthiest township in the United States.”


The first major factory in Warren was Rotary Electric Steel, later Jones and Laughlin, was located on Eight Mile Road just east of Mound Road where we watched the steel being poured then formed into big orange hot blocks.

Soon Carboloy Company open on 8 Mile Road.

Warren high was opened in 1951.

1952 Korean armistice signed (July 27). The Cold War increased.

South Macomb Community College was founded in 1953. It started with 22 teachers in rented rooms at Lincoln High School.

1954 First atomic submarine Nautilus launched (Jan. 21).

Dr. Jonas Salk started inoculating children against polio.

1959 Detroit water was piped in and Buechel's old general store from 1854 was demolished to make way for the new St. Clement Church.


Until the late 1940s the ice man still brought ice in a big horse drawn wagon with a huge tarp on top. The kids loved him because he would give you a chip of ice to suck on and you felt like you really got something especially in the hot summer. But this was soon replaced by the ice factory down on Van Dyke near Nine mile. Or you could buy a block of ice by putting money in a machine. Many people still needed them for their ice boxes which as folks could afford them were replaced by refrigerators. If you forgot to empty the pan under the ice box and you walked up to it with your bare feet you had a cold shocking surprise.


You could even work on your car in your driveway without someone giving you a ticket. Now it is illegal to work on your own car in your own driveway. Where has our freedom gone?


You could look up at the sky then and see the milky way and most of the stars. Now there is so much extraneous light in the sky that one has to go way out in the country at least fifty miles from any city in order to see the milky way. And you could see hundreds of shooting stars during meteor showers.

The Korean War also cost local lives. .

In 1955 the Nine Mile and Federal fire hall was built followed some time later by the fire hall on Twelve Mile Road by Hoover.

Police protection which had been under County Sheriff moved to Warren Township control in 1950.

In 1956 the population had increased 63,000. This was probably putting more demands on the charter township system than it was designed to handle. People wanted better service that a city type of government could deliver.


October 27 1956 The Township of Warren was incorporated as the City of Warren

as the citizens of Warren Township had voted to replace township government with the city form of government. In 1956 Gov. G. Mennen Williams signed the charter making Warren a city. It actually began operations as a city on January 1, 1957. The treasurer was only paid 14,000 a year.

Gradually the roads and sewers were improved, new public buildings built, more fire stations built, fire equipment purchased and staff hired. Also a multitude of other improvements were made. The Van Dyke, Mound and Sherwood had the most industrialized growth. The first major factory in Warren was Rotary Electric Steel, later Jones and Laughlin, was located on Eight Mile Road just east of Mound Road. A lot of tool and die shops opened as the automotive industry took off.

Gerald Neil stated “During the early 1950’s it [Warren] became known as the largest, most heavily populated, and wealthiest township in the United States.”

During the 1950s, the number of service workers grew then surpassed the number of workers in manufacturing. By 1956, more workers had white-collar jobs than blue-collar jobs.

Warren high was opened in 1951.

So from the 1940s to the end of the 1950s Warren went from a farming community to the richest urban township in the country with the leading design complex for the leading company in the world, and a major defense facility, and its own community college and Michigan’s newest city. And in the next ten years it would double its population and its industries.


Local businesses in the Warren Area

See Wesley Arnold's Who’s Who of Businesses which is a separate book and much more detailed.

Banks; Warren Bank had several offices. Bank of Commerce also had several branches.

Grocery stores: Tip Top Market Ten Mile Road, A&P Van Dyke, Kroger, Chatem, BiLow, Schansee,

Drug Stores: Homers Van Dyke Van Dyke’s, Kamp Van Dyke Drug Co. 23350 Van Dyke,

Feed Stores: Base Line Feed Store and a big hardware south of it, Lazones Hey and Feed store. Hardware stores: Handy Hardware, Adams Hardware, Wolf Hardware, Gromulski Hardware,

General Stores: Burlers Nine Mile Road, Burks 5 & 10 Van Dyke , Robinsons

Appliance stores: Inter City Appliance, Rinke Appliance

Bakeries: Buttercup, Village

Food: Ma Zott’s, San & Walter,

Florist: Palico Florist, Groesbeck Flowers, Lees Florist, Sigers Greenhouse, Young’s Greenhouse, Ed & Lil’s Flower and Gift Shop

Barber shops Adams

Garages: Swansens Service, Van Dyke Shell Service Lester Abbott Prop 27333 Van Dyke,

Cleaners: King Cleaners 22613 Van Dyke, Motor City Laundry 8105 Nine Mile Road

Car dealers: Rinke Car Dealers on Van Dyke Carney Buick Van Dyke, Taylor’s on Van Dyke (Dodge-Dart-Lancer-Simca),

Contractors: Cogill and Son

Ice Cream: Brickleys, Homers Drug Store, Twin Pines, Sealtest,

Photography: Art Craft, Ron Peters

Heating: Triple A Heating Co 5403 Eight Mile Road

Furniture: Virtue Furniture Co 6109 Eight Mile Road

Misc: Great Lakes Mushroom Canning Co-op 23350 Ryan, Edison Electric Company Van Dyke, Johnny’s Recreation, Munn Engineering, Adams United Corp., Parmco Engineering, Robin Gray Sign Painting, George Siagkris Insurance Bonds, Shady Lane Trailer Park 2709 Capitol

Undertakers: Moon Funeral Home, Ford, DuRoss, Rudy

Churches: First Baptist, Salvation Army, St Ann’s, Redeemer Baptist, Van Dyke Baptist, Ryan Road Baptist, St Clement,

During and after World War II America saw tremendous economic growth and was the world's richest country. Americans felt united. Most people conformed to their group norms. The 1950s may have been the most conservative in our history. It was known as the American Decade and it was filed with a lot of optimism.

Most men worked and supported their families, and most women took care of the home and children. Children went to school, and most graduated. Then they got a job, got married and had kids unlike later years in which the order was often different...

The economy was among the best in our history.

Prices: Gasoline was a mere 25 cents gallon.

The Schoenherr Super Market located at 21834 Schoenherr advertised the following prices in 1955: Coffee 99¢, Campbel's Soup 3 for 29¢, peanut butter 37¢ 11oz, catsup 14oz 23¢, Land o Lakes butter 69¢, soup 4 for 39¢, cheese 2 Lb 69¢, Blue Bonnet l lb 29¢, Macintosh Apples 3 lbs 29¢, Michigan #1 potatoes 10 lbs 39¢, frying chickens 39¢ lb, beef chuck roast 43¢, hamburger 39¢, sirloin steak 79¢, orange juice 3 for 89¢, Birds eye pies 2 6oz 37¢.

Mike Myers Market 2201 Federal eggs 39¢ doz, Ground beef 29¢, Vel soap powder 2 box large 45¢, Pet Milk 4 for 49¢, sugar 5 lbs 39¢, tomatoes 2 ls 25¢.

Other 1950's prices: Chuck Roast 59 cents per pound, large Eggs 49 cents per dozen. Family Style Loaf of bread 12 cents. Tooth Paste 29 cents, Toilet Tissue 5 cents. Turkeys 49 Cents per pound, sliced bacon 35 cents per pound, Sugar 43 cents for 5 pounds, but a 21” BW TV set was $179.95 (Prices were from newspaper ads)

Reminisce Magazine Sept 2004 stated 1957 Stamps were 3 cents , bread was 19cents a loaf, gasoline 31 gal, eggs 83 dozen, milk 1 gal, min wage 1 hr, ford custom six coupe 1,889, average annual income 5,443, Cadillac Fleetwood sedan 7,586.


One could easily find a job back then

Most people that wanted one had a job. Cars were works of art, and each model year was a new beginning. We loved our families and our cars. Drive-ins were a place to drive your car in and eat or to see a movie. Some of the movies were: War of the Worlds,

Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Because TV was so popular the movie theaters were taking a beating and even tried 3D to lure in customers. But TV became the baby sitter for millions of children and adults. It affected the culture. For the most part in the 1950s it had clean decent entertainment and showed good moral values.

TV

Back then TV had all decent programs. You did not see lesbians making love on daytime TV, or a man ripping off a womans bra during prime time, or cartoons bragging how great it is to set a teachers clothes on fire or hundreds of immoral acts displayed weekly poisoning our children's minds as they do now. Granted they did have cigarette commercials. Do you remember “Outstanding and they are mild.”


On the Black and white TV was Zorro, "Davy Crockett and the River Pirates".

Highway Patrol was a very popular television series. TV Westerns 1957 Colt 45 Tombstone Territory Restless Gun Hawkeye and the Last of the Mahicans Man Without a Gun, Dick Clark’s Bandstand, Milton Berle, Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour Your Show of Shows, Perry Como Show Colgate Comedy Hour Your Hit Parade Jack Benny Show People Are Funny George Gobel, Show Arthur Godfrey Ed Sullivan Dinah Shore Lawrence Welk, Red Skelton, Lassie. Everything good clean decent and best of all with good moral values for the children. Some say we are reaping what we have sown with higher crime rates and more teenage pregnancies.


Mickey Mouse Club, Remember: Who's the leader of the club That's made for you and me? M-I-C-K-E-Y M-O-U-S-E! Now's the time to say goodbye To all our company Through the years we'll all be friends Wherever we may be M-I-C-K-E-Y M-O-U-S-E Mickey Mouse, Mickey Mouse Forever let us hold our banner high M-I-C - See ya real soon! K-E-Y - Why? Because we like you! M-O-U-S-E!!

Also on TV were lots of cigarette ads For example, The dancing cigarette packages or Camel’s cigarettes had one a popular slogan “Not a Single Case of Throat Irritation Due to Smoking Camels.” some of the most popular cigarette slogans of the 1950’s. Marlboro slogan read “The Filter does not get between you and the Flavor.’ As to “Outstanding and they are mild.” It was Pal Mall

A popular Lucky Cigarette Slogan reads, “Light up a Lucky, it’s time to light up.” Or tear and compare. A popular Camel Slogan “For more pleasure have a Camel.”

One that a lot of people will remember “Taste Good like a Winston Should.”

LSMFT Lucky Strike means Fine Tobacco. There were other versions of that also. :-)

“Your Voice of Wisdom says Smoke Kent.” But also in the 50s doctors began to notice a correlation between smokers and lung cancer. About ten years later cigarette advertising was banned from television. Advertising jingles proliferated, Rice-A-Roni - The San Francisco Treat! Olly Fretter “I’ll give you a pound of coffee if I can’t beat your best deal. Mr. Belividere’s “We do good Work!”

45 records came into use on the record players or on the Hi-Fi which was not stereo. Much of the music of the 50s was Feel Good Music

Popular Music: Leroy Anderson, Montovani , Sinatra, The Kingston Trio sang “This Land is Your Land,” “Where Have All The Flowers Gone?” and “Scarlet Ribbons.”

Ray Charles inventor of Rhythm & Blues sang "Night Time Is the Right Time," "What'd I Say" and "Hit the Road, Jack." There were also strange but funny songs like “Found this great big box The Thing”

Fads: teenage jargon like groovy baby, there were hula hoops and coonskin caps spurred on by the TV series Davy Crockett. In the late 1950’s instant tea became popular.

Burger King, hardies, Dunkin' Donuts began spreading throughout the country.

TV news had: Edward R Murrow, anchor, Fred W. Friendly and Edward R. Murrow, producers, Edward R. Murrow who for seven years Murrow, broadcasted with cigarette smoke swirling about him. And there was John Cameron Swayze (1948-1956), Remember the Timex commercial “Takes a lickin but keeps on tickin” and Chet Huntley (1956-1970), David Brinkley (1956-1979), and Dave Garroway's famous signoff of "Peace." Later our beloved Walter Cronkite (1962-1981) As Cronkite always said in his signature closing, "that's the way it is..."

Burma Shave signs lined the roads. Within this vale of toil and sin your head grows bald but not your chin. She kissed the hairbrush by mistake. Thought it was her husband Jake.

Remember when computations were done with slide rules not computers or calculators.

Bottles had to be opened with a bottle opener.


The Korean War began when North Korean Communist forces invade South Korea (June 25 1950). Color television introduced in U.S. but many families continued to use their black and white sets.


Russians launched Sputnik I, first Earth-orbiting satellite in 1957—the Space Age began.

The Army's Jupiter-C rocket fired first U.S. Earth satellite, Explorer I, into orbit (Jan. 31, 1958). and the St. Lawrence Seaway opened, allowing ocean ships to reach Midwest (April 25, 1958). This opened the door for inexpensive foreign imports direct from other countries which thirty years later would result in hundreds of jobs lost in Warren.

For a conservative decade a lot was accomplished. For the people of Center Line there were big changes. Warren shifted from an agricultural society to a manufacturing society and started the shift to a service based society. Information and knowledge increased greatly. Warren went from rural to urban and from a charter township to a City. Family’s evenings went from reading to watching television. This began another great revolution in the young. More about that in the 1960s.

Some local businesses in Warren area in the 1950s were:



Art Grissom Motor sales 24231 Van Dyke

Motor City Furniture 22900 21” TV $159.95

HI neighbor Cleaners 21708 Federal

Van Dyke Automotive 23330 Van Dyke

Van Dyke Clothers Van Dyke at 9 Mile Rd

Stilwell Press 25512 Van Dyke

Rivard Bros 20955 Van Dyke Baseline

George Hairdresser 23522 S n of 9

John Knapp Realty 25140 Van Dyke N of 10 Mile

Richard & Trule Tool & Die 2751 Van Dyke

Gietzen Service 25445 Van Dyke

Jos Rivard Appliances & Sport Shop Gun Repair 21045 Van Dyke

Memphis Grocery 6898 Lozier at Memphis

Dr R Paul Zusman Optometrist 23012 Van Dyke

Tara Drive in Van Dyke at 11 Mile Rd

Pastime Lanes

Grosbeck Flowers 24416 Van Dyke

Robinson Department Store 25511 Van Dyke

CF Gibbs Lumbar 25135 Van Dyke

Boulton Hardware 22740 Van Dyke at Maxwell

Sunbeam Cleaners & Laundry 24817 Van Dyke

Italian Singing Sams Grill 5649 E 8 Mile 2blks W of Mound

Voh's Plumbing & Heating 24650 Van Dyke

C Sway Self Serve 26526 Mound

Flaina & Sons Paint & Hardware 26324 John R

Hoste Bros Electric Construction 25311 Van Dyke

E C Nolan Co Contractors 8121 Warren Blvd

Motor City Boat Shop 23044 Van Dyke

Jerome's Smart Feminine Apparel 23066 Van Dyke

Warren's Drive In

Brown Brothers Dairy 24649 Van Dyke

Liberty Cleaners and Tailors Dryers

Zeck's Pharmacy 24408 Van Dyke

Ross Barber Shop

Margaret Lawrence Hair Stylist 24445 Van Dyke

Center Market 25504 Van Dyke

White's Laundry 25619 Van Dyke

Metlers Delicatessen 26312 Van Dyke

Western Auto 24809 Van Dyke

Lazoen Hay & Feed 25945 Van Dyke

Van's Pharmacy 25501 Van Dyke

Ford & Killeen Funeral Home 25531 Van Dyke


And in the 1950 there was a real sense of community and caring. Most people treated each other with respect. Families did things together. It seemed that even most teenagers were respectful. Crime was very low. All in all the 1950s were a pretty good time to live.

Warren had just become a city and continued tremendous growth in population, building, job growth and in expansion of infrastructure. New homes were built. New streets were created. GM was growing and expanding creating thousands of jobs. The automotive industry was growing and with it many new tool and die shops located in the Warren area. With all of the new jobs, building and population growth many new stores restaurants, service businesses and fast food places located in Warren.

Warren may have been the fastest growing community in the United States.

There was tremendous economic growth. Warren became much more urbanized.


Even more rapid growth occurred in the 1960's. There were many new industries and businesses established and Warren became the industrial center it is today.


Between 1960 and 1970 the population doubled.

1960 Warren population 90,000

1960 More than 34% of women over 14 were employed for wages. Just 10% of wage-earning women were farmhands or servants. Among married women, 31% worked for wages. .Women in the paid American workforce: 34.5% of all women; 42.9% of unmarried women; 31.7% of married women.

1960 Birth control devices in the U.S. were widely used. Women discovered that they did not have to have 14 babies. The population rate leveled off.

All of the farms succumbed to urbanization except two. They were Palico's and the Bunert Weier farm on Bunert located located near Warren’s growing Macomb Community College. For a while it even looked as if that would fall also but the Bunert-Weier Woods was bought by the college and the farm remained a historic landmark cut down in size but still in the hands of the original family. The land had all been subdivided but Ida Weier and her family bravely continued some farming and still had some live stock. They had guinea hens and red bantams and offered fresh eggs to local residents. When I visited Fred Weier in 2006 he still had the red bantam chickens. The Bunert Farm is one of Warren’s real treasures and simply must be preserved. (Read the story of Warren’s first cemetery, which was located behind the Bunert Farm, and how it was destroyed.) Fred died in 2009.

Average Salary $4,743

Teacher's Salary $5,174

Minimum Wage $1.00

Prices for other goods taken from local newspapers: Apples 19 cents a pound, Beef Chuck Roast 49 cents per pound, Chicken 29 cents per pound, Eggs 55 cents per dozen, French Fried Potatoes 10 cents for 8oz., Ground Beef 45 cents a pound, Frozen Dinners 39 cents, Cheerios 28 cents per box, Ham 39 cents per pound, Ice Cream 79 cents half gallon, Cheese 39 cents 8 ounces, Butter 67 cents per pound, Turkeys 39 cents per pound, Potatoes 39 cents for 10 pounds, Sirloin Steaks 89 cents per pound, Sugar 38 cents for 5 pounds, Gasoline 30 cents a gallon.


Local businesses in or around Warren area in the 1960s

Food: Joe’s Restaurant 32171 Mound, Ronnie’s Drive-In Van Dyke, Burger King fast food followed as did Hardees’s, Dunkin Donuts, Taco Bell and Big Boy restaurant (some of which had drive in service), Howard Johnson’s on Van Dyke. Peppys Burgers was built at 12 Mile and Van Dyke about 1962. McDonald's came to Warren about 1962. Hamburgers were about 20 cents. Chef’s Beef House 28742 Van Dyke, Brickleys Ice Cream and Dairy Van Dyke, Van Dyke Butcher, Macomb Bar-B-Que & Restaurant 20916 Van Dyke,

Groceries: Kraft Market 29036 Schoenherr, M & J Market 25850 Ryan, Hoover Market 25875 Hoover, Gee-Ko’s Party Store 21419 Van Dyke, Schoensee Bros. Van Dyke at Central, Tip Top Market at the corner of Van Dyke and Ten Mile Roads, Stafford’s Market 7228 Chalmers, Shopping Center Market, Chatem Super Market Van Dyke, A & P Super Market Van Dyke, B & B Grocery 26312 Van Dyke,

Bakeries: LaRose Bakery and Delicatessen 24057 Van Dyke, Butternut Bakery Van Dyke, Model Bakery 25607 Van Dyke,

Drug Stores: Karp Van Dyke Drug Co, Warren Tech Medical Pharmacy 27552 Van Dyke, Bensin’s Drug Store Van Dyke,

Hardware: Handy’s Hardware on 9 Mile near Ryan, Mathis Hardware 21410 Ryan, Adams hardware on Ryan, Wolf Hardware Van Dyke sold rifles for $127,

Stores: Burlers Variety Stores, Franklin Stores, Joe's general Store 23201 Hoover at Nine Mile Road, Robinsons Department Store, Miracle Mart Super Store, Baseline Feed Store on Van Dyke in Baseline, and a big hardware just south of it. Jenuines Gifts Van Dyke, Automotive Color Supply 24424 Van Dyke, Warren Creamery, First National Bank, Paul Wilke Quality Meats, Henk’s Dry Goods, Berk’s 5¢ to $1 Store 25537 Van Dyke, Gills Army Surplus Van Dyke at Nine Mile Road, Christmas Tree Shack Van Dyke,

Furniture: Kriss Furniture Co 12004 Nine Mile Road, Muntz TV F & S Saales Nine Mile Road,

Movies: Motor City Theatre Van Dyke at Nine Mile Road, NorTown Van Dyke, Ryan Theatre 22730 Ryan Rd at Nine Mile Road, Civic Theatre 12327 Kelly,

Recreation: Motor City Bowling on 9 mile and Van Dyke just south of the Motor City Theater, DeSantis Lanes 27553 Mound at Eleven Mile Road, Ark Lanes 21600 Dequendre,

Florist: Sigur’s Greenhouse 26005 Mound, Jerry’s 3800 Nine Mile Road, Palico Florist Eleven Mile Road, Groesbeck’s Van Dyke, Lee’s Van Dyke,

Services: King Cleaners 23813 Van Dyke, Motor City Laundry 8105 Nine Mile Road, Ryan-Nine Cleaners 23061 Ryan, Leo Klatt Farmers Insurance 18448 Van Dyke, Universal Ambulance Co 18849 Schoenherr, Dutchman Shoe Repair Van Dyke, Joseph Pregel Insurance 18537 Van Dyke,

Medical: Memorial Hospital Van Dyke, Schurig’s Shoe Clinic 31702 Mound, Ross Optical Van Dyke, C L Veterinary Hospital Van Dyke,

Misc: Great Lakes Mushroom Canning Co-Op 23950 Ryan, Northland Oil Co, Van Dyke Optical Co., H L Claeys & CO 31239 Mound, Zaremba Radio and TV Service, Tech Center Nursery Sales 30300 Van Dyke, Ulrich Lumber and Building Supply 6470 Nine Mile Road, Standard Lumber Co 27332 Van Dyke, Lazon’s Hay and Feed Van Dyke, Baseline Feed Store Van Dyke Baseline, Follo Jewelers 25305 Van Dyke, , Warren Glass Co 26707 Van Dyke, Durable Fence Co 22208 Ryan, Metal Cabinet Co 25260 Ryan,

Rinke Appliances Van Dyke, Michigan Crane 2323 Eight Mile Road, Roache Steel Supply 22742 Sherwood,

Banks: Banks: First Federal 23521 Van Dyke, Bank of Commerce and The Warren Bank had multiple offices. Center Line State Savings Bank Palico Florist, Van Dyke Clothiers men’s suit and vest 58.78. Center Line confectionery, Van Dyke Pharmacy nine mile and Van Dyke,

Schools: Macomb Community College 14500 Twelve Mile Road, Sawyer School of Business Van Dyke, Macomb Auto Driving School 24444 Ryan,

Car Dealers Clem Rinke 31331 Van Dyke 48 years same location, Herrick Motor Sales 4603 Nine Mile Road, Farmington Dodge Van Dyke and 10 Mile Road, Rivard Bros Ford, Gross and Schimmel Cadillac and Van Dyke, Lincoln, Fordson, Van Dyke at 8 mile, Chalker Sales Cheverolet Center Line, Warren Chevorlet Sales, Warren Cooperative Co,

Car related: Van Dyke Muffler Service 21457 Van Dyke, Goodyear Service 7800 E 9 Mile, Dad’s Cut Rate Station brake job 9.95, J & J Auto Service 27600 Mound, Superior Service Don Cramer Owner 25168 Van Dyke, Van Dyke Collision 11003 Nine Mile Road, Cut Rate Auto Parts 25321 M97, Automotive Shop Inc 25239 Van Dyke, Van Dyke Auto Supply 23330 Van Dyke, 11 Mile Collision 1749 Eleven Mile Road, 11 Mile and Van Dyke Service 26839 Van Dyke, , Ed Rinke Chevorlet, Rinke Cadillac Van Dyke, Bob Thibadot Ford, Harry’s Auto Sales 17954 Nine Mile Road, 12 Mile Mound Shell Service, Toepher Standard Service 21708 Van Dyke, Tack’s Sinclair Service 22552 Van Dyke,

Funeral Homes: Duross, Ford, Rudy Van Dyke, , Bardya 7531 Nine Mile Road, Housing: Twin Pine Trailer Coach Park 6815 Eleven Mile Road, Karam Homes 30162 Van Dyke, Bella Motel Van Dyke, Bali Motel 1703 Eight Mile Road, Center Line Gardens Mound Rd, Swift Real Estate 22050 Van Dyke.


Contractors: Webb & Son 6745 Cadillac, H Goghill & Son Paving 25168 Peter Kaltz, H L Wood Cement Contractor 7262 Wiegand, Richard Hellebuyck Trucking Excavating 14481 13 Mile Rd, Dibasio & Turchetti Construction 3000 Ten Mile Road, Gregory Contracting 25551 Sherwood, Arthur McLauhlin Cabinets, Doors and Windows 8111 Coolidge,

Industrial: Ideal Polishing Co. 14012 Nine Mile Road, Ring Pattern & MFG CO 12901 Stephens, Bedard Bros Inc Industrial Janitor Supplies 1227 Ten Mile Road, Plymouth Industries Inc, Cut-More Tool Co 11035 Nine Mile Road, Towne Club Bottlers Ryan, Kut-Rite Mf 2055 Nine Mile Road, Hovis Screwlock Co 8100 Nine Mile Road, Frank’s Store Fixture Manu 8310 Nine Mile Road, Midwest Sandblastin and Painting 25411 Sherwood,

Not Close but Important to us: Fago Pop, Vernors Ginger Ale, Canada Dry Corp Highland Park, Closest swimming pool Lipke Pool Van Dyke and Pershing High School, Belle Isle Park, Metro Beach and State Parks. BobLo Boats. Twin Pines Farm Dairy.

Where did our trash go to G & H Industrial Fill 3160 23 Mile Rd North End of Ryan Rd. Marygrove Clinic,


During the 60s, rock-and-roll came in. The Beatles became an overnight sensation in America in 1964 when their album "A Hard Day's Night" sold one million copies in only a few weeks.

Unemployment 3,852,000

Life Expectancy: Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years

Auto deaths were 21.3 per 100,000.

About 850,000 "war baby" freshmen enter college; emergency living quarters are set up in dorm lounges, hotels and trailer camps.

The movement away from the conservative fifties continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life.

The Games People Play -Eric Berne


There was more interest in consumer protection because of Unsafe at any Speed by Ralph Nader.

ADS & FASHION FADS Youth predominated the culture of the 1960's. The post World War II Baby Boom had created 70 million teenagers for the sixties, and these youth swayed the fashion, the fads and the politics of the decade. California surfers took to skateboards as a way to stay fit out of season, and by 1963, the fad had spread across the country Slot cars overtook toy trains in popularity.


COSTUMES / FASHION

Crew cuts on men were common as were men's plaid casual shirts. Knee-length dresses were required wear for women in most public places followed a few years later by, miniskirts or hot pants. Men's hair became longer and wider, sometimes with beards and mustaches. Men's wear trended to bright colors. Turtlenecks were popular.

By the 1969 ties, when worn, were wide. Bell bottomed jeans were worn by some.

The Vietnam War was one of the only wars in history where the men who fought for their country were not greeted as heroes when they returned

Great strides in civil rights were made especially for blacks.

The number of Hispanic Americans tripled during the decade and became recognized as an oppressed minority. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was amended to include gender. The birth control pill became widely available. The Supreme Court decided in Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421, 1962, that prayer in the public schools was unconstitutional


In 1962, a spy plane identified long range missiles in Cuba. President John F. Kennedy readied troops to invade Cuba, and the Soviet Union prepared to fire at US cities if we made a move.

1961 - Peace Corps created by Pres. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. To prevent communist North Vietnam from overtaking South Vietnam, the United States sent military advisors and then soldiers. It was largely a secret war until 1965, when massive troop buildups were ordered to put an end to the conflict. The draft was accelerated and anti-war sentiment grew in the US. College students organized anti-war protests, draft dodgers fled to Canada.


Alan Shepard, became the first American in space in 1961. In 1963, John Glenn was the first American to orbit the earth. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, in Apollo XI, were the first men to walk on the moon in 1969. The surgeon general determined that smoking was a health hazard, and in 1965 required cigarette manufacturers to place warnings on all packages and in all ads. the first artificial heart in a human, and it kept the patient alive for three days until a human heart could be transplanted.

People became more concerned with their health and their environment. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring awakened the environmental movement and the Sierra Club gained a following.


MUSIC In 1960

Elvis returned to the music scene from the US Army, joining the other white male vocalists at the top of the charts; Bobby Darin, Neil Sedaka, Jerry Lee Lewis, Paul Anka, Del Shannon and Frankie Avalon. The Tamla Motown Record Company came on the scene, specializing in black rhythm and blues, Bob Dylan helped bring about a folk music revival, along with Joan Baez and Peter, Paul & Mary. The Beach Boys began recording music that appealed to high schoolers. The Beatles, from England, burst into popularity with innovative rock music that appealed to all ages There was a major change in popular music in the mid-1960's, caused in part by the drug scene. Acid Rock, highly amplified and improvisational, and the more mellow psychedelic rock gained prominence. The musical phenomena of the decade was Woodstock, a three day music festival that drew 400,000 hippies and featured peace, love, and happiness...and LSD.

Many of us loved Peete Seiger, Arlo Guthrie, Peter Paul and Mary and Simon& Garfunkle.

By the end of the decade, popular music was also using synthesizers and other electronic devices.

Sex became more explicit, in movies and on TV. Six James Bond Movies, including Dr. No, From Russia With Love, and Gold finger, combined sex and violence and were enormously popular. Previous taboos on sex, violence and language, were ignored, resulting in the need for a new film code by the MPAA.


Radio continued to be the primary means of listening to music although FM radio became more popular due to better quality. Chubby Checker introduced the twist in 1961 and dancing became an individual activity.


Television offered the second prime time cartoon show, the Flintstones , in 1960. (The first was Rocky and his Friends in 1959.) It appealed to both children and adults and set off a trend that included Alvin & the Chipmunks , the Jetsons , and Mr. Magoo. The Andy Griffith Show was a good decent show that was very popular for most of the 1960s. The Beverly Hillbillies heralded the first sitcom. Other shows were Bewitched, The Addams Family, My Favorite Martian , I Dream of Jeannie, Star Trek, Twilight Zone, Rowan and Martin's Laugh In.

In the Movies: James Stewart was a popular actor in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valence (1962), How the West was Won (1962), Shenandoah (1965) and The Flight of the Phoenix (1965). Also Fiddler on the Roof, My Fair Lady, Sound of Music, Camelot, and West Side Story,

The Mamas and the Papas and Simon and Garfunkel were very popular.

1963 The big Schoenherr drain started to drain the east side of the city.


1970s

Some of Warren and Center Line's sons died in wars.

PFC R. A. Jacobs and others Died in Viet Nam. Many were wounded.

The population of Warren was 179,260 Density was 5,242 average per square mile.

The city has upgraded its building codes and has had programs of urban renewal. Sewers, water and gas mains were installed. A City complex was built. In 1975 a new court building was completed. The I696 Freeway was built across the middle of Warren along Eleven Mile Road and completed in 1978 Other roads were improved..

Fred Gemmill adds that privatization of municipal services as cost saving measures began.

During the 70s, Rock N Roll broke into numerous styles: soft, hard, and folk rock, punk and disco! The Beatles started the decade with the release of the famous LP, Let It Be.

Pet rocks, mood rings, Rubik's cubes • In 1971 more than 50 million smiley face pins were sold.

1975 MITS offered a BASIC interpreter. This interpreter was the first product developed by Bill Gates' and Paul Allen's new company, Microsoft. This was followed by the Radio Shack TRS-80 1977, the TRS-80 it came with the BASIC language so one could write their own programs. The Apple II outsold it. VisiCalc (released in 1979 running on an Apple II) made people look at personal computers as business tools, not just toys.

CB Radio grew big after truckers protested the 55 MPH speed limit

Concord jet broke the sound barrier and was fastest commercial passenger liner

Nixon resigns

Detroit produced a million muscle cars Camero, Chevelle, Starsky and Hutch, 52,000 Americans die in cars, pollution increases, There was an Arab oil embargo.

Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000

The average salary:was $7,564


Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound

Apples 59 cents for 4 pounds. Campbell’s Tomato Soup 10 cents. Fresh Turkey 43 cents. per pound. Ground beef 98 cents per pound. Ground Round 79 Cents per pound.

Idaho Potatoes 98 cents for 10 pounds. Land O lakes Butter $1.33 per pound. Large AA Eggs 59 cents per dozen. Medium Eggs 25 cents per dozen. Morton’s TV Dinners 36 cents. Roasting Chickens 98 cents per pound. Sirloin Steak $1.19 per pound. Sliced bread 25 cents per loaf. Sugar 39 cents for 5 pounds. Turkey 68 cents per pound. ground Beef 99 cents per pound.

Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8 Gasoline 40-90 cents a gallon.


There was a heightened concern for the environment.

American culture flourished. Families bought station wagons.

Knits and denims, ankle-length grandmother dresses to hot pants and micro-miniskirts were common.

The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a chip." Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought back 250 samples of rock and soil. Unmanned space probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus.

The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in space..

Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV games.

The videocassette recorder (VCR) came into homes..

In medicine ultrasound diagnostic techniques were developed.

The Vietnam War divided the country. Crime increased. Immigration increased.

Women surpassed men in college enrollment in 1979.

Divorce left an increasing number of women as sole breadwinners and forced more and more of them into poverty.

A Huge anti-war march in Washington, D.C. occurred in April 1971.

1971 Daniel Ellsberg leaks the Pentagon Papers, massive collection of top-secret government documents, whose publication helps to discredit the Vietnam War policies of the Nixon administration.

17 May 1972 Republican agents burglarize Democratic headquarters at Watergate.

May 1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) signed by U.S. & Soviets.

September 1972 nineteen killed in terrorist siege at Munich Olympic Games

1973 Arab oil embargo causes severe shortage and energy prices skyrocket

January 1973 Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalizes abortion

October 1973 amid charges of corruption and scandal, VP Spiro Agnew pleads no contest to income tax evasion and resigns from office.

December 1973 Gerald Ford, congressman from Michigan, becomes the new vice president.

1974 Economy in worst recession in 40 years.

August 1974 Ford becomes the thirty-eighth president after Richard Nixon, facing impeachment charges, is forced to resign.

April 1975 South Vietnam falls to Communist forces of North Vietnam.

4 July 1976 The country commemorates the 200th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with a spectacular bicentennial celebration.

March 1979 Radioactive leak at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant.

November 1979 Iranian militant students seize the U.S. embassy in Tehran capturing 66 hostages and setting off an intense standoff that lasted 444-days.


Television came of age in the Seventies as topics once considered taboo were broached on the airwaves for the first time. Leading the way was the humorous social satire of All in the Family, which had plots on many controversial issues such as abortion, race, and homosexuality. Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered sacred. Television satellite news broadcasts from the front lines of the conflict in Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country. The immensely popular TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in African American history. Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically presented the contemporary family. The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children, and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings.

Brady Bunch and the Watergate Five. Presidential privilege, pardon, and peanuts. Earth Day and the EPA. Peace with honor, Big Mac with fries. Bell bottoms and halter tops. Walking on Earth Shoes. Running on empty.

Within the realm of science and energy, the defining events of the 1970s were oil shortages: first in 1973, then again in 1977. Waiting in long lines for short supplies, many Americans realized for the first time how central a role energy plays in the good life ... and how vulnerable some forms of energy are to political vagaries. Thus began, after the Mideast oil embargo of 1973-74, a rush to diversify America's energy base and to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.

Conservation, meanwhile, thrived on the decade's energy austerity

Even more rapid growth occurred in the 1960's. There were many new industries and businesses established and Warren became the industrial center it is today.


Between 1960 and 1970 the population doubled.


1960 More than 34% of women over 14 were employed for wages. Just 10% of wage-earning women were farmhands or servants. Among married women, 31% worked for wages. Women in the paid American workforce: 34.5% of all women; 42.9% of unmarried women; 31.7% of married women.

1970 Women in the paid workforce: 41.6% of all American women; 50.9% of unmarried women; 40.2% of married women.

Plastic replaced glass bottles and even most paper packaging.

More and more things were being designed to be throw away items.

The city upgraded its building codes and has had programs for urban renewal. Sewers, water and gas mains were installed. A City complex was built. In 1975 a new court building was completed. The I696 Freeway was built across the middle of Warren along Eleven Mile Road and completed in 1978 Other roads were improved..

1980s

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was constructed and listed 57,939 American soldiers killed.

The 1980 population of Warren was 161,134 with an average density of 4,684 persons per square mile.

In the home often both parents worked more hours for less money. Divorces rose. There were more single parent families.

Minimum Wage: $3.10 and the average salary: $15,757 Milk 85 cents 1/2 gallon . Apples 39 cents a pound. Bread Sliced 55 cents. Ground Beef $1.39 per pound. Ham and Cheese Pizza $2.49. Pot Roast $1.49 per pound Wyoming 1986

Potatoes $1.00 for 5 pounds. Turkey 55 cents per pound. Gasoline 1.00-1.40

Some families bought the new minivans which largely replaced station wagons.

1980 Women in America's paid workforce: 51.5% of all women; 64.4% of unmarried women; 49.9% of married women.

Personal computers came into common use in the home. Radio Shack TRS 80, Commodore Vic 20 & 64, Amiga, Texas Instruments 99, Sinclare, Apple and with them video games became very popular. TV was the most popular form of entertainment and VCRs began being used. The ethical and moral standards of TV programming was lowered. Children were being exposed to excessive sex and violence and even pornography. Scientific studies later showed that this was harmful to children. And the American people reaped what they had sewed as teenage pregnancies and violent crime rates tripled since 1960. More and more unmarrieds were living together often fathering children and leaving it up to the welfare to support them. The prisons could not hold all of the persons arrested and prisons started releasing felons back on the streets. Crack cocaine appeared in 1985 and cocaine addiction was up 35 percent. It was so bad that president Reagan had to declare a war on drugs, and Nancy Reagan started a “Just Say No” campaign.

There also was a growth in social consciousness in recent years. We appear try to take better care of poor and handicapped. But we are failing to properly do so. General assistance was cut to people without children. So if you were a working man without kids and you worked for forty years and brok your leg you could get no help from the state except for food stamps.

Also the mental facilities were emptied out putting dangerous persons on our streets. And some people died.


Health: Life Expectancy: Male 69.9 Female 77.6. many people died from AIDS. Hospital costs rose, The first Artificial heart was implanted. Research was done on cancer, diseases and genetics research.

Economy was fueled by credit card buying. Many people spent well above their means.

There was with double-digit inflation, in the early 1980s and unemployment rose. But for some people income climbed more than 20 percent,

Business IBM in business.

Science and technology made many advances. Columbia, the first reusable spacecraft in 1981.

Entertainment Attendance: Movies 20 million/week. Talk shows became common on TV

Internationally the Berlin Wall was torn down, 52 hostages were released from their 444 days of captivity in Iran. The 1980s also saw skinny ties and the Rubik’s cube.


1990s

1990 Women in the American workforce: 57.5% of all women; 66.9% of unmarried women; 58.4% of married women

Also that the "1990's witnessed the emergence of a 'feminist movement' as three women served at the same time on the council."

1990 only 2% of US population engaged in agriculture 0% in Center Line and Warren since the middle forties. Some prices from the 1990s Apples 99 cents per pound. Campbell’s Tomato Soup $1.00 for 3 cans. Eggs Large grade A $1.05 per dozen. Chicken $1.05 Per pound. Frankfurters $1.99 per pound. Eggs Large grade A $1.05 per dozen. Ground Beef 89 cents per pound. Ground Chuck $1.82 per pound. Milk 1 gallon 99-190. Potatoes 31 cents per pound. Sirloin Steak $2.99 per pound. Sugar 99 cents for 5 pounds. Wieners $1.39 per pound. Gasoline 1.00-1.50

1995 computers replacing telephones, postal mail, newspapers, become new information source and advertising media.

The Old Tank 147-acre Arsenal area was giving way to stores and condos.

In the early 2000s Michigan lost over 400,000 jobs. It had the highest unemployment in the USA. 37% of Michigan children are in low income families. Thousands do not have adequate medical care. The federal government has chosen not to give extensions to the unemployment benefits dooming many of us including this historian to choosing between medicine and food. The republican led congress has also voted not to raise the minimum wage while they have given themselves several raises. We have young people and young families leaving the state to find work elsewhere. Big corporations have often chosen to lay off local workers in favor of farming out work to China and India.


America in the 2000s

2000 Government begins recording of everyone’s Internet use and telephone conversations without public knowledge. Remember the book by George Orwell called 1984 about Big Brother. Big Brother began spying on all Americans.

American technology was being given away to foreign interests or stolen. Often this happened because of the Internet.

2000s Center Line began to lose jobs. The automotive business was being sent overseas. Parts and other things were increasingly manufactured in other countries. It was impossible to buy as TV set, camera, VCR, DVD player or consumer electronic device that was manufactured in the USA.

With the exporting of manufacturing went the off shoring of jobs.

By 2007 Michigan had lost 400,000 jobs and its unemployment was the worst in the nation.

Things were so bad that people started to move out of the state. Even college graduates after graduation were moving out of the state. They had to, to find a job. Many of those who got unemployment were in the process of losing their homes. The federal government refused to extend unemployment benefits while members of congress gave themselves pay raises.


2002 surveillance of general public begun at public places using face scanners able to search records of 160,000 faces a minute enabling government to round up terrorists or any citizens it wants to. A federal government program recorded all telephone and Internet usage by individuals.

The following Acts and EXECUTIVE ORDERS have nullified parts of our Bill of Rights. The Patriot Act of 2001 and 2006; Because of the Patriot act the Government could now search anyone’s home without knocking and without a search warrant. The Military Commissions Act of 2006 allows anyone to be arrested and takes away your right to a hearing and trial. Because of the Military Commissions act. Forces under government control could incarcerate people, including American citizens, without warrant and hearing. A program called Cable Splicer for an orderly takeover of the state and local governments by the federal government.


FEMA is the executive arm of the coming police state under the following Executive Orders: they would suspend the Constitution and the Bill of Rights; EXECUTIVE ORDER 10995 allows the government to seize and control the communication media. EXECUTIVE ORDER 10998 allows the government to seize all means of transportation, including personal cars, trucks or vehicles of any kind and total control over all highways, seaports, and waterways; EXEC ORDER 10999 allows the government to take over all food resources and farms; EXEC ORDER 11000 allows the government to mobilize civilians into work brigades under government supervision; EXEC ORDER 11002 designates the Postmaster General to operate a national registration of all persons; EXEC ORDER 11003 allows the government to take over all airports and aircraft, including commercial aircraft; EXECUTIVE ORDER 11004 allows the Housing and Finance Authority to relocate communities, build new housing with public funds, designate areas to be abandoned, and establish new locations for populations;  EXEC 11921 allows the Federal Emergency Preparedness Agency to establish control over the mechanisms of production and distribution, of energy sources, wages, salaries, credit and the flow of money in U.S. financial institutions. It also provides that Congress cannot review the action for six months. The Federal Emergency Management Agency has broad powers in every aspect of the nation. as well as prevention of dissident groups from gaining access to U.S. Opinion. Yes the feds can control our freedom of the press. The SS has plans to take over your city by suspending the powers of your mayor, city council and to place local police under federal control. They can remove weapons from private citizens homes. The right for citizens to bear arms is in our Bill of Rights. It is the only way we can protect ourselves from attackers or dictators.

Citizens rights to peacefully assemble under our bill of rights is now restricted. Permits are now required and public demonstrations are severely limited and can be held only where allowed. Coverage of any public demonstration can be censored as reporters can be restricted. Your news is now controlled by only five major companies which can be forced to limit coverage of any event or issue. The Internet is only partially censored now but any site the people in power don't like can be shut down. The Internet is monitored by government agencies and parts or the whole can be censored or shut down. Your phone conversations and Internet use is recorded. You can verify this. Just Google the government program called Echelon.


Worse yet the government allows organizations to collect information about all citizens and then allows these organizations to sell your personal information to anyone with money to buy it.

On a national level by 2008 scientific dictatorship became possible because information to the public was no longer under local control. Segments within the federal government were able to control media, credit card transactions, banking, the military and there are several special paramilitary units controlled by those in power. The American public was not in control of the military, the media, the economy, or the credit and banking system. Large numbers of Americans became the working semi poor. Two spouses often had to work to support a family.

Very large numbers of homeowners are being foreclosed on with out recourse. Large percentages of America's business, banks, credit companies, food producers, and oil producers came under foreign control without the knowledge or consent of the public. The President George Bush tried to place the nations ports under foreign control. The government continued compiling lists of who owns rifles and handguns. This effectively enabled the government to disarm the American people. The federal government also allowed huge quantities of foreign investment (or control) of real estate and businesses. And the federal government had allowed the technology which took many years to develop to be given away or sold to foreigners. It has allowed about 60 million aliens to remain in the country. Millions of these were illegal. The federal and state governments have allowed many companies and utilities to steal from the American people. One example is Helliburton who has racked up billions in profit from the Iraq war with no bid contracts by overcharging the American people. The vice president has made millions from Helliburton prior to taking office and hundreds of thousands from them while in office. In summary it appears that somethings were very wrong.


Constant change in Center Line

The Center Line area is in a constant state of change with new buildings and businesses replacing old ones.

Perhaps we can learn from the "good old days" and apply it to the future for a better life for all. Perhaps we can have again Clean Air, Peace, Justice, The spirit of community and good ice cream.


The Census of 2000

As of the census of 2000, there are 138,247 people, 55,551 households, and 36,719 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,556.6/km² (4,031.8/mi²). There are 57,249 housing units at an average density of 644.6/km² (1,669.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 91.29% White, 2.67% African American, 0.36% Native American, 3.09% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 2.23% from two or more races. 1.35% of the population is Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 55,551 households out of which 27.8% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% are married couples living together, 11.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 33.9% are non-families. 28.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.0% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.47 and the average family size is 3.05.


In the city of Warren the population is spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 17.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.1 males. There is a big change as more and more foreigners are moving in. Often one goes to a shopping mall where it sometimes seems that English is not spoken. One in ten persons does not speak English at home. It appears that a vast amount of things available for sale are no longer made in the USA.

The median income for a household in the city is $44,626, and the median income for a family is $52,444. Males have a median income of $41,454 versus $28,368 for females. The per capita income for the city is $21,407. 7.4% of the population and 5.2% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 9.5% are under the age of 18 and 5.8% are 65 or older. What a disgrace that thousands of children and working parents often have to do without medical coverage, while career criminals get the good medical coverage at a cost of $35,000 each.

In 2004 Warren is the third most populous city in Michigan with about 150,000 residents.

In Michigan, there are 1,459,555 families, with 2,532,110 children. 37% of them are considered to be in low income families. 17% are below the poverty level. According to Columbia University http://www.nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_low_income_ MI.html


In Michigan thousands of children do not have adequate Dental and medical care.

In 2007 in Warren record numbers of working families were having their homes foreclosed on. And there was also record numbers of homeless families including children. The greedy bankers often will not work with a family. Often they demand huge amounts. Sometimes families could stay in their home and make the house payment but the greedy bankers insist on huge amounts. So this forces entire families to have to leave their home. Over 1200 homeless in southern Macomb County alone. Many with no place to go. In southern Warren it is not uncommon to see homeless people. On more than one occasion people on my street have discovered homeless sleeping under trees or in sheltered spots. Our heart goes out to them as often they have no place to go as the shelter is full. Sometimes there are whole homeless families with children. It is also not uncommon to see near homeless picking thru garbage cans and dumpsters for bottles valuables and food. The Owen Jax recreation center reported many homeless coming there for help but the workers there have nothing to give them. Warren and Center Line crime rates are lower than the national average. It would have been even better but for quite a bit of crime crossing over from 8 mile road into our city. Warren sits on the northern boundary of Detroit unfortunately still known as murder city. Statistics just released at the end of 2007 put Detroit right in there with St Louis also known for its high crime rates and murders. Crime is so bad in Detroit that they need police officers to ride on school buses to protect the children. Warren has never had to have police ride on its school buses because Warren is proud to be a law abiding community.


Additional observations by the historian:

History shows us that we should not waste resources. Look at the lumber industry.

History shows us that we should be prepared.

Pardon the following historical observations.  Teachers are not allowed to “touch” students.  But the students often assault each other and almost nothing is done.  The teachers are afraid of the students, the Administration and School Board are afraid of lawsuits.  Many parents are now afraid of their kids.  And the kids, they aren’t afraid of anything.  Probably because they are allowed in our society to get away with almost anything.  There is little to no punishment for misbehaving.  If a parent spanks his kid in a store the police are called and charges are filed against the parent.  As a teacher who has taught every grade level in Center Line schools and at college level I have heard many kids say, “My parents can’t punish me because I will call the police and say they hit me and they will have to go to court.”  Perhaps we need to work on better parenting and holding teenagers responsible for their actions.


Most of our ancestors were very poor, had little or no schooling and until the 1900’s most were not able to read or write. They lived without: electricity, cars, fast food restaurants, TV, modern appliances like microwave ovens, refrigerators, gas and electric cooking stoves, washing machines, dish washers, telephones, light bulbs, flush toilets, city water, prepackaged foods, band aids, sanitary items and perhaps worst of all no toilet paper. However despite the hardships they endured it appears that they appeared happier and healthier then many people today. There were no teen age drug problems, or teenage VD epidemic.


Parents did not have to monitor what their teens watched on TV because everything was decent with good morals. If you lost your wallet it would be delivered back to your front door with everything in it. Is that true today? What has changed? In prior times teenagers were given chores and the parents held them responsible for doing them. The animals had to be fed, stalls cleaned, the cow milked, butter churned, eggs gathered. The garden had to be planted and weeded. Even fairly young children had a responsible part in the family’s survival. Young people learned to be a useful part of the family and learned to be responsible. Most young people of yesteryear proved to be responsible persons. There were hardly ever teenage gangs of punks to rob people. And of course you never saw any gang symbols or spray painted buildings on or spray painted freeway walls.


Not to say that everything was wonderful. Life for most people required a lot more manual labor. Women had to wash clothes by hand outside using big tubs, cook from scratch often outside over wood fires using cast iron pots. All of the wood used for heating, cooking and cleaning had to be cut, dried and brought to the house. Of course the kids often had the job of bringing in the wood and breaking it into little usable pieces. Fireplaces with pot hangers were the chief means of heating and cooking until stoves were affordable and available. Although stoves were not available much before 1730 in the Eastern colonies they were largely unavailable until after Macomb County was established in 1818. Even then the pioneers often did not have the money to have a stove shipped from out east. So the early pioneers used open fires outside and later as they had time to construct them inside fire places sometimes with brick openings called ovens. If cooking was done outside imagine the hardships of building fires in the rain, snow and wind without matches or fire lighters. They had to use flint and steel, burning glasses or fire drill. More often the fire was just kept going in the form of hot coals. Although Matches were being sold around Civil War time 1860 it probably was not until after 1890 that they became more widely available. Imagine having to cook dinner in the wind and rain. Or as my grandchild asked me why didn’t they just put it in the microwave?


By the way conveniences like toilet paper although available after the civil war did not become commonly used until after the Scott Paper Company brought out rolls in 1890. The pioneers used leaves, grass, rags, weeds, cattails, corncobs two reds and a white for check and later on Sears and Robuck catalogs.

How was food preserved? Meat was first dried and smoked. Some goods were packed in salt water, pickled, cured, or fermented. Since there were no refrigerators until after about 1930 ice boxes or cool cellars were used. These relied on ice being brought in, in the winter time and packed in sawdust or wood in a cellar usually under or near the house. Vegetables were often dried and placed in boxed filled with dry dirt in cellars often without any ice at all. Many vegetables preserved very well with this method. By the late 1800’s some people were canning with jars.



Compare our life with that of the pioneers. Imagine laying starving on a pile of tick and insect infested grass in a very hot or very cold make shift hut without a door lock, in fear of a bear, cat or wolf or savage warrior barging in and scalping you and your children. No I did not make this up it happened here. In fact this is how many of your ancestors lived, in fear for thousands of years. Say a thankful prayer that we live in a time and place of peace where we can go to bed in a bed with a nice mattress, in a heated or cooled house with running water, utilities and appliances and have a police and fire department to protect us and the biggest problem might be deciding which restaurant to go to for dinner. We have a better life than any of our ancestors and we owe it to their hard work to create a better world for us. We should do the same for our children and grandchildren.




Old Interesting Events and Stories


Ma! Ma! The cow fell into the well!


And you think we have problems today. What would you do? There was no 911 to call. Wells were dug for water but the problem with open wells was that both cattle and people fell into them. In our area ten to twenty feet was usually successful. How do you get a cow out. They had no good rope or chains. If the cow died would the water be any good?


Grandma and the Bear.

One day when we were away from the cabin a bear got in and was eating our food. Grandma did not have the gun but fought the bear with an ax. She won and we had bear meat for quite some time.

One of the settlers was walking in the woods without his gun and was attacked and killed and partly eaten by a pack of wolves.

Grandma Bunert stated they often heard the howl of wolves in the woods.

Earthquake On August 17, 1877 an earthquake scared the local horses. Some people reported a rumble noise. We have had several minor quakes since then.


In September of 1881 another devastating fire struck the Thumb area of Michigan making the skies dark for days. Hundreds of families lost everything and 282 died. The previous fire burned from Wisconsin to the west side of Michigan and all across Michigan. The sky was dark for many days.


Mayors of Warren

Arthur J Miller Jan 1 1957 1961

Louis Kelsey Jan 1 1961 April 1961

William (Bill) Shaw April 1961 – April 1967

Ted Bates April 1967 - April 1969, April 1969 - Nov 7 1971, Nov 8 1971 – Nov 12, 1973-19 81

James R Randlett Nov 7 1981 – Nov 8 1983, Nov 5 1965

Ronald L Bonkowski Nov 6 1985- Nov 3 87, Nov 3 87 – Nov 6 91, Nov 6 91-Nov 7, 95.

Mark A Steenbergh Nov 7 1995 Nov 2 99, Nov 2, 99-Nov 8 03, Nov 8 03-Nov 10, 2007

James Fouts Nov 10, 2007-Present In his first remarks he stated that this city government will be by the people and for the people and that his decisions would be based on what was best for the community. He quoted President Truman who justified decisions by asking will it benefit the average citizen.


Salaries

All Warren Township officials in 1893 served without pay.

Township Treasurer since 1843 got 4% of the collections as his fee.

Beginning in 1920

Supervisor

1920 Supervisor was paid $800.

1930 3600

1931 2400

1932 10% cut 2700

Clerk

1920 the Clerk $500 per year.

1930 2100

1931 1650

1932 10% cut


Treasurer

1930 3000

1931 2400

1932 10% cut



Works Cited and Sources

Many conversations with old timers and their families over my 67 years is the major source for this work

Many occurred when I was young. I have long ago forgotten who told me what.

Arnold, Wesley, Our Local History. Warren Freedom Press 2008.

Arnold Wesley. History of Warren. Warren Freedom Press 2009.

Arnold Wesley, History of Center Line. Warren Freedom Press 2008.

Dorr, John & Eachman, Donald. Geology of Michigan. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,1970

Dunbar, Willis Frederick Michigan a History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids Michigan, William B Eerdmans Publishing Company. 1965

Kern, John. A Short History Of Michigan. Lansing MI. Michigan History Division, Michigan Dept. of State. 1977..

Parkins, Almon Ernest. The Historical Geography of Detroit. Michigan Kennikat Press. 1970

Terrestrial Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times from: the Mammoth Trumpet (March 2001) by Richard B. Firestone, Lawrence. Berkeley National Laboratory, and William Topping, Consultant, Baldwin, Michigan http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/nuclear.html

National Geographic. The World of the American Indian. Washington DC: National Geographic 1974

Hinsdale, Wilbert B. Michigan Archaeological Atlas Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.1931.

"Pioneering in Warren Township" by Anna Kluck. old newspaper article date unknown

Neil, Gerald L. History of Warren Michigan. Warren: Gerald Neil.1971.

Hazen, Bert Silver Jubilee. Center Line: Stilwell Press 1961

Michigan Historical Center Michigan Department of History exhibit on Michigan History http://www.sos.state.mi.us/history/firstpeople/firstpeople.htm 2007

Farmer, Silas. History of Detroit and Wayne County and early Michigan. Detroit: Gale Research 1969.

Lewis, Ferris Everett . Michigan My State and Its Story. Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1992. P 160

Michigan History magazine (http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/kids/pdfs/guide1.pdf)

Leeson, M. A. History of Macomb County, Michigan. Detroit: ProQuest 1882 pp.852ff

Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages. http://www.taphilo.com/history/war- deaths.shtml 2007

Sights and Sounds of Warren. Warren: Warren Historical Commission. 2006

Shramm, Jack personal comments.

Brit, Robert Roy. Mystery of Arizona's Meteor Crater Solved posted 9 March 2005 on Internet. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/050309_meteor_crater.html

Archiving Early America Jay's Treaty http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/jaytreaty/

Burns, Ken. The War. Documentary movie shown on PBS 2007

Stilwell, Herold personal conservations.

Grobbel, Mike personal conversations and his wonderful website http://centerline.grobbel.org/

Mike Grobbel has also started a group for people ;interested in Center Line History. It often has interesting historical items and fotos http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CenterLineMI/

Michigan in Civil War http://www.michiganinthewar.org/cwmireg.htm

Capital has severe HIV epidemic. Maggie Fox, Washington: Reuters Nov 26, 2007

Rubenstein, Bruce A Michigan A History of the Great Lakes State Wheeling. Harlan Davidson. 2002.

Viola, Herman North American Indians. New York: Crown Publishers 1996

Ziewacz, Lawrence. A Michigan A History of the Great Lakes State Wheeling. Harlan Davidson. 2002.

In regard to helliburton (my spelling) http://www.halliburtonwatch.org/

Port access refused Nov 30, 2007 http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20071130/pl_nm/usa_china_warship

Web sites for Michigan history, local churches, military history, wars and battles often give good general background information. Just search Google for the topic.

And visit our Macomb County History site http://www.ole.net/%7Emaggie/macomb/


Thank You

I would like to thank all of those who shared historical information with me. I am in turn sharing it with the community by placing it in book and electronic form in the public libraries and on the website This site has many pictures you can see. Much of the historical information came from talking with people over a period of 67 years. I have long since forgotten who told me what. Mike Grobbel hopefully will be carrying on work as Center Line Historian. It appears that Wes Arnold and Mike Grobbel were the only two people that recorded Center Line history in the last twenty years. Of course thanks to Norm Smith for his help, to David Hanselman for saving the LeFrance, to Gail Martin for the historical marker work, Jack Shram for documenting railroads,

Sincerely Wesley E Arnold humble historian


Note: The late Wesley Arnold's work can be seen on the web site macombhistory.us


What is to be learned from History?

The first thing an impartial observer would note is that throughout history mankind has been brutally engaged in warfare and in attacking, killing, torturing, and brutalizing innocent persons all over this planet for thousands of years. And it continues today around the world. It seems that violence begets violence as groups retaliate. And this doesn't have to be.

Many wars start with a disagreement or misunderstanding.

Disagreements sometimes lead to fights then to battles then to wars. If the misunderstanding can be resolved by discussion, mediation or conflict resolution, war can be avoided. If the parties speak a common language, that makes it much easier to resolve issues. If not an international vocabulary such as Esperanto could be used. (It is not Spanish. It is the easiest to learn language)

Killing besides causing great suffering is counter productive. There are better ways to resolve issues than to resort to killing; and everyone benefits. Diplomacy has many times in the past resolved issues and prevented wars. We must be alert to take action to resolve potential conflicts before they escalate. This can work with countries and with local groups. But we must still be prepared to defend ourselves.


On the local side we should teach young people to settle disputes without violence, and accept the rule of Law and Justice as opposed to rule by brute force. This includes teaching children to: bring no harm to another by their actions or inactions, and to not do to others what they would not want to be done to themselves. Young people should be taught about the constitution and bill of rights and to live by our laws. We need to create and foster communities where the people, the government, the police, schools, business and the wealthy all work together for the benefit of everyone in the community. The culture needs to be converted to a culture of caring and responsibility. Where all are responsible for their actions and not allowed to hurt or kill others. Where the goal of the government is the health and welfare of all citizens.

Good medical knowledge saves lives. Antibiotic drugs are vital

History shows that millions have died due to diseases we now have cures for. History shows that when not enough medical research was done people died. But as of now not enough new research is being done to prevent the new super germs from killing thousands. We must encourage more research into new antibiotic drugs. It will soon be a matter of life or death.


Some residents now are dying from Pollution related conditions

We need to stop polluting our planet which is already causing thousands of deaths. After all we live on a small planet spaceship Earth. And Our spaceship has no life rafts.

Global warming has been confirmed. 15,000 French people died from heat in 2003. Glaciers are melting. Thousands of animal species are dying. World scientists agree that it must be stopped or there will be global climate change and millions of deaths. See the movie "An inconvenient Truth" from video rentals.

The electric company could pay you

Enough free sunlight hits our planet every day to provide all of our energy needs. We need to utilize our free solar energy by installing solar shingles and panels, and wind turbines. They can generate enough free energy at times to allow the electric company to buy the excess and pay Center Line residents and companies for making electricity. And this free energy could help power solar and hybrid electric cars. Solar and wind energy are free for the taking and don't hurt climate. Everyone wins.

Civilizations that use their resources wisely do better. Using solar and wind would be better for our economy and air.

A people who improve their knowledge do better

In ancient times and in recent times peoples who had discovered and used better technology were able to succeed better against other peoples. They have better weapons. They have better defenses. They use their resources including people in more efficient ways. The USA led the world in technology in the last few decades and became the most powerful country on Earth with the best defenses. Unfortunately this is changing due to several factors.


Foreign Interests

Partly because of the huge trade imbalance our government is allowing banks, credit institutions, natural resources, companies and real estate to be sold to Arabs, Muslims and Chinese and other foreign interests. Foreign interests now own and control much of our banking and credit systems. Arab owners also own the majority of local gas stations and grocery stores and control most of the oil in the world. This is not a good situation for our security. To discover that our mortgage company and credit card company is possibly owned by foreigners and that they might have control of our most valuable property and our credit should be a wake up call to Americans.


Our precious technology is being given away


Our precious technology that took many years to develop is being sold and given away.

In order to make better profits many large companies selfishly sold or gave our technology to foreigners which put us at risk. Now several foreign countries have our technology and they are running with it. In addition they placed our technology on the Internet where it could be easily taken.

The Toshiba Company sold technology to the Russians that compromised our secret anti submarine technology. Now instead of having hours to respond to submarine missile threats we have only minutes. Now Russian subs can be in our waters able to launch missiles which we cannot stop that can hit for example the Capitol within just a few minutes.

Other companies acting irresponsibly have given the Chinese sensitive electronic components which the Chinese can back engineer.

The Chinese are excelling in back engineering and copying technology and don't care whether it is patented or not. They copy cameras, electronics and lots of compact disks. The Chinese are famous for selling knock off copies of things at lower prices without regard for copyrights. They will soon have the ability to produce most any electronic component and device.

Peoples who educate their young people are more successful.

Our current society is failing to support its educationally talented youth and thousands of our bright young people can't afford to finish college so their skills are wasted. Education has been given a back seat in our country for too long and we are about to pay the price big time.

China has more bright high IQ kids than America has kids and in several other countries such as China promising young people have their way paid completely through college. Students from other countries are surpassing American students with better test scores. As a result America is losing its technology lead as other countries with better trained minds are advancing their technology. The Chinese are training their bright kids in advanced technology. They graduate thousands more engineers and people with higher technology skills than we do. The result will be that they will surpass us in engineering and technology and defense technology in just a few years. This is very dangerous for our defense.

The Chinese may soon be able to negate our military.

The Chinese have successfully sent a space ship to the moon and are also now able to shoot down our militaries command and control satellites as proven by their recent successful tests. Our military over-relies on computers and satellites. The Chinese could soon negate our command and control satellites. We have next to no soldiers to defend us on our side against millions on this other side

The Chinese may soon be able to surpass our economy.

For several reasons: Because they have better education for their children than we do; Because they have more bright children than we have children; Because they better educate their bright youth; Because they graduate many times more engineers, technical specialists and scientists; Because they were given our technology and are improving on it; Because they work cheap; Because they now have huge manufacturing capability. Because they have thousands of operatives living in the USA to gather more information. The Chinese and are posed to surpass us. Don't believe it then why is it that most of the things you find in stores including electronic equipment, phones, radios, TVs, home entertainment, and cameras are now being developed in other countries and even manufactured there. Within just a few years China will surpass the United States in technology, engineering, war technology, economics, and sales. If you doubt this go to any big store and compare how many items are made and engineered in the United States as opposed to those from elsewhere. And with it go millions of good jobs AND YOUR SECURITY!


Sub adequate education

Large numbers of our 19 year olds: have few job or vocational skills and are unemployed or unwilling to work, don't know what the basic law of our land is, can't properly fill out a job application, don't know what the Holocaust was or who we fought in WWII,. Can’t find the USA on an unmarked map of the world, have poor reading skills and some are doing drugs and committing crimes. Many are unfit and many are obese. It is doubtful of many of them could be relied upon to defend our country if needed.

Vocational Skills and Responsibility.

Young people should be required to learn a vocational skills and responsibility. There should be required exit tests for each grade. If not passed they should be required to attend summer school or repeat the grade. The community needs to do more to properly educate your young people and to take action to prevent delinquency, mental illness and criminality. It has been proven that current TV programs promote violence. most kids spend more time watching TV than they do in school. TV programmers must be made responsible for providing decent programming. Viewers should threaten sponsors that they will boycott their products if things are not cleaned up. We need to promote organizations such as the Boy and Girl scouts who teach good morals, survival and leadership.

Correcting little problems before they become big problems


Troubled youth uncorrected lead to problem adults. We need social workers in schools to resolve social and behavioral problems before they become major problems. After all a stitch in time saves nine. Many ignored problems don't go away they just get worse. A small investment in social workers can mean less prisons, crime and suffering in the future. Lives could be saved also.


Cultures who protect the rights of individuals are more successful

They do this by establishing Rule by Law. Civilizations that treat their citizens as resources usually grow stronger because they are utilizing the talents of the citizens. The more citizens working, the stronger the economy. A country with high unemployment is weaker. Unemployment is bad for a country, bad for the people, bad for the economy and can lead to crime. Unless there is a way for a family to get food they may have to steal it if survival depends on it. If you were starving and your kids starving you will do anything to get food. If there are rich people there with lots of food they will become targets. This what has inspired many revolutions and wars.

Countries that distribute the wealth throughout the citizenry do better than those that allow just a few wealthy persons to share in it. When the wealthy abuse the citizenry the country suffers. Examples from today compare North and South Korea. In the north people do not have rights or property and they are starving and uneducated. Only a few selfishly control the wealth. As a result the country is poor and backward. In the south wealth, knowledge, freedom, the economy and its wealth is shared. Result a dynamic prosperous country.

In the US many selfish leaders and CEOs are busy filling their own pockets and milking companies at the expense of the American people. Companies like Helliburton (my spelling) are given no bid contracts by government officials who have an interest in this company. Helliburton has made billions in profits off the Iraq war and ripped off the American people by charging EXORBITANT prices. Check out the website http://www.halliburtonwatch.org/ You will be shocked. Something is seriously wrong. Seems like conflict of interest. Seems like treason. Ask Dick Cheney how he can justify his profiting thousands of dollars from the war from Helliburton. Meanwhile the government allows US companies to export our jobs and our hard earned technology to other countries against the best interests of the American people. They pour billions into the sewer of Iraq but take money from poor Michigan which lost over 400,000 jobs and yet denied thousands of us laid off persons unemployment benefits. This has caused many workers, who worked a lifetime, to lose their homes in record numbers. Something is seriously wrong with this picture. If one one-thousandth of the millions that went unaccounted for in Iraq had been spent to upgrade Center Line 's economy the people of Center Line would have benefited greatly. There is a large class of Americans who used to be middle class but are now part of the largest growing class in America the forgotten class of those living from paycheck to paycheck just barely above poverty. This has happened because of the greed of the rich. The American dream is almost dead. Especially in Michigan which finds its young people moving out of the state in record numbers. I am a college professor and a large percentage of my students plan to leave Michigan after graduation.


The more a country allows foreign interests, control parts of it the weaker it becomes.

Persons who let someone else control their bank and credit accounts may be in for a shock Would you loan someone you don't know your credit card? Is it wise to allow foreign interests to buy American banks, credit card companies, key businesses and ports? It is possible that the persons doing this are getting paid off to do so. Why did President Bush try to give control of our ports to foreign powers? Seems like conflict of interest and treason to me. On the day I wrote this China refused to let two minesweepers shelter from a storm in the Hong Kong port. Yahoo News Nov 30, 2007.

Countries that survive do not bring aliens in great numbers to live amongst them. This is just asking for trouble. Cities that survive don't leave the gates of the city open and unguarded or bring in Trojan horses inside the gates of the city. The Trojan horse was a large statue that was thought to be a gift from a defeated enemy so it was brought into the city. Later that night soldiers hidden in the statue snuck out of the statue and opened the city gates allowing the enemy army to rush in and conquer the city. Our boarders are in many cases wide open. We have about 60 million aliens in our country with millions more coming in yearly. (Over 10 million in the last few years) They use our resources, take our jobs, and demand that we print things in their languages because they have not learned English. Some bring in diseases and foul practices like female castration. They often do not practice birth control and many come in pregnant causing us to give them medical and hospital services at the American public expense. In addition their children born here become American citizens so are entitled to welfare at public expense


Some have many children and some go on welfare and are supported by the American welfare system. I saw several cases like that when I was a social worker for the state. They apply for free lunch programs at the schools their children attend. Meanwhile they send money out of our country to support their relatives in foreign countries. They sponsor as many of their relatives in foreign countries as they can and bring them in to America. One in five persons does not speak English at home. In southern and some western states it is now one in three. Most of these folks do not have any loyalty to America. They are only here to make a better living. They still love and are loyal to their native country which is not the USA. They usually do not renounce citizenship in their native country. I went to the mall the other day and it seemed like I was in a foreign country. There seemed to be only foreign languages spoken wherever I went. Many of them refuse to learn English fluently. They form groups then cheat Americans Example: the Arab oil interests and oil companies and the foreign owners of gas stations and grocery stores where they charge higher prices for gas and food. They are ripping us off on gas prices. Why don't we charge them more for what they buy from us? Example raise the price of wheat we sell to them. Why is our government allowing us to get ripped off but are giving away our products in fair trade agreements? Who is looking out for us Americans?

When it comes to defending our country their loyalties really show. Few of them enlist in the armed forces. Many are still loyal to their own native country. Arabs are loyal to Arabs, Muslims to Muslim interests. We cannot count on this huge part of our population to defend us. Furthermore they are not really Americans with American values. They often treat their women like slaves and take the law into their own hands. They often form their own private ethnic groups and sometimes the young form gangs.


On the other side of the coin Immigrants are the history and salt of America. Many have contributed much to America. The problem now is that the floodgates are open and too many are coming in resulting in the destruction of our America as we know it. Millions are illegal and have little respect for our laws. Among the 60 million aliens are many foreign operatives and Muslim terrorists. They have been brought up to give their lives so that they can be a martyr by killing innocent people including women and children. They think they will go to their heaven where they can have many virgins even if they kill many innocent people in the process. Example: the Muslim terrorists who slit the throat of a stewardess or who flew a plane into the World Trade Center killing 3000 innocent people. We need to deport these and all of the illegals. We need to demand that as a condition of them becoming a citizen that they learn English fluently, abide by our laws for at least ten years first, learn our history and what our country stands for, renounce all allegiance and citizenship in all other countries and take an oath to support our country, abide by and support its constitution and be a loyal citizen.

Planning is more fruitful than thoughtlessness.

We need to properly plan our cities to provide for all citizens. Cities should be beautiful places to live not what we have now. There should be adequate parks and beautiful areas for recreation. There should be adequate housing for all citizens. There is a special need for lower cost housing for seniors and the poor. If enough is not available in the private sector than the government should build more. This can be done with the nearly free service labor as described below. This housing should be equipped with solar shingles and wind power generating equipment to reduce costs.

Most cities could have underground weather resistant efficient subways. They could be built by free service labor and powered by solar, wind hydro and thermal to reduce costs. These could easily and efficiently and with pollution free electric trains go to most locations in most cities. They could also be constructed to also carry people between cities at low cost. This would greatly reduce pollution and traffic on surface roads. Imagine being able to just walk just a short distance to the entrance then relax and read the morning paper or a book or listen to music on headphones on the way to work. No traffic, weather or parking frustration. Because it is solar, wind, thermal and hydro powered and used by all it should be free.


Many of the common things we use were not even invented until recently and then it often took many years more before they were available to the average person. 

Clothing in general for men consisted of shirt, pants, waist coat, shoes and long stockings.  Women wore a long undershirt called a chemise covered by a waistcoat and long skirt.  A work apron and bonnet completed the wardrobe.  Boys and girls both wore dresses until older.  By the way underwear was usually not owned or worn until about the middle 1800’s.  It was not uncommon for babies and children to be wearing only their birthday suit. Herbs were rubbed on for mosquito repellent.  Children and men often swam in the nude.  Babies were sometimes nursed in tandem and on demand. More clothing was of course worn in the winter time.  Most people had two changes of clothing.  One for every day work and the other for Sunday and dress up wearing.  The clothing was not usually fancy just functional.  Fancy dress clothing appeared later in Center Line. The population was anything but rich and could not afford fancy clothing.  They were farming people tied to the running of the farm and with no place to go even if they had fancy clothes.  But they did have their shindigs.  They had plowing bees, quilting bees, picnics, singins, in addition to the Sunday church services.

Compare our life with that of the pioneers. Imagine laying starving on a pile of tick and insect infested grass in a very hot or very cold make shift hut without a door lock, in fear of a bear, cat or wolf or savage warrior barging in and scalping you and your children. No I did not make this up it happened here. In fact this is how many of your ancestors lived, in fear for thousands of years.  Say a thankful prayer that we live in a time and place of peace where we can go to bed in a bed with a nice mattress, in a heated or cooled house with running water, utilities and appliances and have a police and fire department to protect us and the biggest problem might be deciding which restaurant to go to for dinner.  We have a better life than any of our ancestors and we owe it to their hard work to create a better world for us.  We should do the same for our children and grandchildren.


What's with the lack of windows?

  Nearly all of the rooms in the schools had windows. Even the rest rooms had frosted windows and at least one that could be opened for ventilation..  At first the schools did not have or need electricity.  But later when they did , it did not matter if the power went out as teachers could still teach and children could read and write fine with the light that often came in from more than one direction.  Sorry to report that in this historian’s viewpoint the architects now days do not design school buildings for practical use.  Daylight is free.  Most new schools ignore this.  Why not at least have skylights above inside rooms.  Why not have light coming from both sides like Center Line High School which won an award for its architecture.  This historian went to school there and at Busch school and we never had a problem reading when the power went off.  If the power goes out for even just a few minutes now days, they shut down the school.  The school bath rooms today have no windows and little ventilation and crime is so bad in today’s schools that bathrooms even the teachers are often locked.  Even teachers are assaulted now days.  I know of a substitute teacher that almost died when a student threw a heavy steel bar at him just missing his head.  The teacher had refused to give them two lunch periods and insisted that they do the work assigned by the regular teacher. Teachers now have a tough job just maintaining discipline.

What has changed in our culture that bathrooms have to be locked? 


Pardon the following historical observations.  Teachers are not allowed to “touch” students.  But the students often assault each other and almost nothing is done.  The teachers are afraid of the students, the Administration and School Board are afraid of lawsuits.  Many parents are now afraid of their kids.  And the kids, they aren’t afraid of anything.  Probably because they are allowed in our society to get away with almost anything.  There is little to no punishment for misbehaving.  If a parent spanks his kid in a store the police are called and charges are filed against the parent.  As a teacher who has taught every grade level in Center Line schools and at college level I have heard many kids say, “My parents can’t punish me because I will call the police and say they hit me and they will have to go to court.”  Perhaps we need to work on better parenting and holding teenagers responsible for their actions.


Can history lead to stimulating questions that can alter today’s world? Try this single example. In 2003 nearly 100,000 barrels of oil came from a well site in Macomb County. This proves there is oil under us. But the profit is being given away to a private Canadian company rather then benefiting citizens of Macomb County. Why are we paying high prices for gas and oil when we are sitting on millions of gallons which the citizens of Macomb County own?



Efficient underground weather resistant, safe shopping malls perhaps some with senior housing and hospitals could also be constructed with free service labor in our cities People could easily reach these by the subways. They would be a steady temperature year round because of being underground. Shoppers would not have to worry about snow, ice, traffic, wind, tornadoes and parking.

Locals that do better grow their own food.


Having to import food puts a strain on the economy. Local grown food is less expensive as it does not have to be transported at great expense. Local food is usually more nutritious because it is not raised on a bulk food farms who use chemicals and tricks to increase production. Local production of food bolsters the local economy and is safer because you know where your food comes from. Local production means some fields and farms in the local area which is good. Young people can work there and all learn how food is produced. Kids learn how to take care of farm animals. People gain a better understanding of what it takes to grow food. With new technology Warren farms can grow more food in less space. Hydroponic greenhouse methods allow food to be grown year around.

Historically Warren was self sufficient in its own food production

Warren was self sufficient in growing food in the past. We need to be cautioned against too much dependence on foreign grown food. The technology is there to improve safe local food production. Well insulated greenhouses and fish farms could produce good local food that costs less because it does not have to be transported thousands of miles.


Warren and Center Line jobs going overseas

Many American companies in the name of their own selfish profit are sending jobs overseas. Even GM is exporting hundreds of jobs out of Warren to overseas. Why is it that? The USA was the leader of the free world. It is a sad fact that America is falling behind in education, technology, economy, and manufacturing. Better education and planning can help reverse this.

Better vocational training and job placement needed

Social history shows us that unemployment has harmful effects on families, the community and the economy. The unemployed should be given the opportunity for vocational training and job placement. If no private sector jobs are available let them be temporarily placed in public service in their new vocation. This would give them experience and take them off of welfare roles. People working are bolstering the local economy and paying taxes. A win win for everyone.

Vocational training that benefits all


History shows that not properly educating youth leads to poverty and social problems. We should provide our young people with decent opportunities for vocational training and practical education in and after high school. This might be accomplished by having a "National Voluntary Vocational Training and Service Corps." This could be something like the Peace Corps which President Kennedy started. A young person could be given help in selecting a vocation then be given the training. They would be required to perform a period of time in practicing their vocation as a public service as part of their training. This is one form of free service labor to the public good and benefit. Everyone benefits. The student gets a skilled occupation and the ability to earn decent income. Society benefits by utilizing its youth and from the services they provide. The working person working in a good vocation pays more taxes than an unemployed or unskilled person and over time the program pays for itself and bolsters the economy in the process. It is another win win for everyone.


Threat to one is a threat to all

We need to recognize that, in a way, a threat to one is a threat to all. Felon killers let back into our society often kill again. This is historic fact. Psychotic killers should not be returned to society where they can kill others. Criminal killers should lose their rights to live in our society.


History shows that where societies don't punish serious crimes with certainty of punishment in a timely manner and with enough severity to make it an example for others motivate them to not commit the crime, that crime will continue and worsen. But Rule of law must be enforced. And those who will not live by it must be banished. We must stop coddling killers and repeat criminal offenders. They don't deserve to live at our expense at over $35,000 a year with free medical care, weight rooms, legal advice, room-apartments and conjugal visits. Jail is too good for them. Non violent criminals should be put to work on construction projects, road repair, clean up, and vocational work-training. The public would benefit from this free service labor and the inmates would learn an occupation rather than learning to be career criminals.


Muslim terrorists have killed over 8000 of our people in the last few years and much of the Middle East supports them. They seem to get a lot of pleasure in killing innocent people and women and children. They even put children in vehicles that are going to be blown up. Their Muslim upbringing has taught them it's OK to kill innocent people including women and children. In fact they specialize in killing as many innocent people as possible. Need an example look at what they did on 911. Think about the children in the day care center and the pregnant women. They select on purpose public places filled with innocent people and set off bombs designed to put out pieces of metal so as to kill and injure as many people as they can. Their religion has taught them that by doing this they will spend eternity playing with numerous virgins. If you disagree with my statements here I invite you serve our country in the military like us veterans did. Imagine what it is like having to pick up the pieces of your best friend who was just helping neighborhood children or families and put his bloody body parts and brains into a body bag like many of us vets had to do. Or don't you have the guts to do it. We tried to help save their country and our reward was to have thousands or our young people murdered by them. Regarding terrorist sympathizers if in doubt leave them out. We can't afford to have them here where our families are but some are here already and so are their sympathizers. We must increase efforts to hunt down and kill terrorists. One veteran painted his van in red white and blue and painted "Get Osama" on its windows. Osama is the master mind muslim murderer terrorist who planned the 911 attack killing about 3000 innocent people including children. Thousands want him brought to justice because he inspires others to continue to kill innocent women and children around the world.


Unfair Burden

It seems to many of us veterans that it is extremely unfair to dump repeated years of war duty (such as in the case of Iraq) on family persons that enlisted in the National Guard and were told that it was just for local duty in times of disaster. About 4000 of them have died (over 200 casualties) from Macomb county. It seems so unfair to have to bear this burden alone repeatedly when there are many strong young people on the streets learning instead to sell drugs, pimp and do drugs and party such as in Detroit and other cities. (I was a social worker there.) Why should some people have to be repeatedly be sent into killing combat and others get to dodge their responsibility entirely. It is the responsibility of every young man to serve his country at least for a year. Yet it seems that many don't have the guts to do it. The time is coming when everyone may be needed to help All youth should be required to learn about and serve in defense of our country.


People who are irresponsible often cause suffering to others.

Responsibility should also be taught in families and in schools. People should be held responsible for their actions. Courts should hold offenders responsible to pay for damages they cause. This needs to be extended to cover white collar crime, cyber crime and management crime. In cyber crime someone steals your identity runs up your credit cards and cleans out our bank account. They have destroyed the lives of about 9 million Americans. When caught jail isn't good enough for these criminals they should be made to work and pay back every cent they took from you.

Multimillionaire managers and CEOs are allowed to rip off companies and workers then allowed to retire in luxury in their multiple million dollar homes while the workers they stiffed and cheated out of their jobs and pensions grovel to eke out a bare survival existence. This is criminal. Looked what happened with Kmart and AT&T. where top management got millions in benefits and milked the company dry hurting workers. Many Warren residents were affected. This is anti American people and we need to take action to stop this and to make those responsible pay us back.


Crimes not adequately punished lead to more crimes.

I had to work all of my life so why do criminals get free support, excellent medical care, legal and library services and don't even have to work for it? At this time it costs taxpayer about $35,000 a year to coddle each criminal. This is unacceptable. Criminals should have to work like the rest of us.

They should have to be required to do jobs that need to be done around the state. (Many of us feel that jail is too good for repeat criminals who have committed hideous acts such as raping and killing babies, deliberate killing of innocent people, chain murderers etc.) The more hardened ones would need to work only under strict supervision. They could work within the prison growing food and installing solar panels and wind power generating towers to make the prison self sufficient and less costly to operate. They could manufacture needed items. The prison system could sell prisoner made products to help support the prison. The nonviolent ones which are the great majority of inmates could then provide free service labor such as road repair, construction and clean up. They could under guarded supervision build senior and low income housing which is direly needed in many places. They could install solar shingles and wind power generators on public and private buildings and construct solar panels in waste areas. This would greatly help our countries energy problems. They could construct mass transit tunnels which are needed all over this country. Again we have to work all of our lives why should we have to support inmates. Let them work to support themselves. All this would pay for itself down the road in savings to citizens and the American people. All this would benefit the country, the citizens sand even the inmates. Another win win for everyone.


There needs to be swift certain and adequate punishment to deter future crimes.

If we don't it is possible that uncontrolled violence can happen here to us as it has in the past to others here. For example some neighborhoods just to the south of Warren were law abiding decent nice neighborhoods. Then a different group of low moral non law abiding character moved in. They caused those neighborhoods to become dangerous places to live. Gunshots are heard daily, gangs entrap young people. The neighborhood hero there isn't the US soldier home on leave but rather the neighborhood pimps and drug dealers who drive their Cadillacs. In fact a soldier fresh from combat duty was killed there while home on leave. Anarchy still rules in some of these neighborhoods today. You can't have anything valuable in your house because there are too many breakins. We hear of firemen getting shot at while putting out house fires in these neighborhoods. EMS medical staff gets assaulted while trying to save lives. It isn't even safe to walk or live in these neighborhoods. Thousands fled Detroit in past years and many continue to do so, not because of race but because they fear for their lives and property. Detroit is a high crime city and was known as "murder city.” Many people were assaulted and killed there. Our Center Line band teacher's 12 year old son was killed at Cobo hall at a school band concert in a robbery. The Robber killed him for under a dollar in pocket change. As a social worker who worked in Detroit I can testify to dozens of assaults on innocent people in Detroit neighborhoods. Cars are stolen often there. Teachers and students are assaulted in the public schools. Most of the students drop out of the schools there before graduation. Many don't even learn how to read to grade level. The public schools there are a national disgrace. Nearly all of the businesses there and many homes must have bars on the windows and doors. Still today in Detroit a lot of criminal behavior goes unpunished. There is a code of silence not to tell the police who did a crime. Witnesses are afraid to come forward because they fear for their lives. Not all areas of Detroit suffer from this savage uncivilized culture which abandons their own children. Note I stated culture not race. Even the Indians did not abandon their own children. It is the uncaring attitude that is the problem which leads to a culture of uncaring men. Human actions are a matter of personal choice not race.

These low moraled men have given Washington DC the worst HIV epidemic in our country.

According to a report on Reuters News Nov 26, 2007 the Capital has severe HIV epidemic. I quote reporter Maggie Fox:"Washington, D.C., has the highest rate of AIDS in the United States, and more babies are born with the AIDS virus in Washington than in other U.S. cities ...Washington, has a rate of 128 AIDS cases per 100,000 people in 2006, compared with a national rate of 14 cases per 100,000. The city accounted for 9 percent of all pediatric AIDS cases in the United States during 2005.. Of the 12,428 people infected with HIV in Washington, 80 percent are black, the report found. More than 8,300 had fully progressed to AIDS and 224 died of AIDS in 2006." Note: How ignorant because HIV is a totally preventable disease. Human actions are a matter of personal choice not race.

Center Line has a much better and safer and healthier culture. Our crime rate is low. We created the finest schools in the state. Those of us who live on the southern edge of Warren do need to be vigilant and prepared to defend ourselves if necessary.


Code of Conduct Needed

Citizens of this planet should agree to a code of conduct and to be bound to certain laws as a condition for citizenship in "civilized" areas of this planet and that those who flagrantly violate that code of conduct should be marked and banned from civilized areas. Example: Muslim terrorists who are willing to kill innocent people including women and children in public areas so that they can go play with virgins. Many are not insane, that is their belief and what they have been taught. They are a threat to our families now and they must be removed from our country now. 7000 of our people have already died. Must more die before we take action? Human actions are more a matter of personal choice than religion. We should not condemn all Muslims for the actions of a few. But what do we do with those who really believe that they will go to a heaven with virgins for killing innocent women and children and are planning to kill?


As for Code of Conduct perhaps the best are as follows: Bring no harm to another by your actions or inaction; Don’t do to others what you would not want done to yourself; Treat others as you would want to be treated yourself. All must be required to be held responsible for their actions. That is Justice.

What we have now is too many criminals on the loose who are threats to us. They know that they can get away with crimes before they are caught and when if they are caught the punishment is inadequate to deter future crime.

Community Spirit, Values

If we were to find the greatest good in the good old days it was that we lived in a caring community. where everyone did their share for the betterment of the community. Everyone had a job to do even children in the form of chores and learning in school. When your work was done you could relax and have fun. If a neighbor was sick other neighbors would get together to plow his field. There were plowing bees, barn raisings and school raisings. Our first schools were built at school raisings. Basically that was a big party where the community came together to build the one room school. People in general, respected themselves, each other and each other's property. Most people did what was right. They took responsibility for themselves and their actions. They acted in a responsible manner. They did not steal others property. Neighbors treated each other just as if the neighbor was their own family. They were a community of families that were part of a bigger family "the community" all working toward the common good of all.


We need to build that human spirit and community spirit today. We need a code of conduct for humans. We need decent values. We need to create and foster communities where people, the government, the police, schools and business work together for the benefit of everyone in the community. The culture needs to be converted to a culture of caring. It takes a community to raise a child but when children are raised by a single parent it is more difficult. But worse when children get their values from television and the streets the child may soon become a non productive youth possibly headed for a life of crime. History shows that when cultures become decadent they are easily conquered. Many children spend more time watching TV programs than they spend in school. Many TV programs today display decadent morals. Many parents are not properly parenting. Children need to be given decent values and learn responsibility and self reliance. Too many are not and as a result our society is headed for trouble.

Countries who remain strong train their young men to defend them.

Veterans resent youth who dodge their responsibilities..

Education needs improvement, discipline, responsibility.

Our young people are not educated to respect our country and what it is supposed to stand for. Our country stands for Liberty and Justice for all. The constitution is the basic law of our land. It has a purpose: "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."

Our young people are not educated in history. They should be educated in the most important things in history. Such as our constitution and bill of rights and our country's struggle for freedom. They should learn about the world wars and how their grandfathers fought and died to preserve their freedom and way of life. I have had young people tell me that the Holocaust did not exist. Other countries put their bright kids thru college and use their skills and abilities. The USA wastes most of our bright kids ability's and skills by not supporting their education. We can't afford to do that any longer. Other countries train their youth in occupations and give their young people basic training in defending their country. As a result other countries may surpass us not only in technology but in education, economics and military defense/offense capability.


Courage

It falls on every generation to preserve its freedom and way of life. The current generation may soon have to defend their freedoms again. Actually it should be an ongoing process of educating the young people and preparing them. We must educate them and we must prepare them now. If you enjoy your freedoms thank us veterans. At least we veterans had the courage and guts to stand up and defend our freedom and way of life. And at the most thousands gave everything they had including their lives often after great personal pain and suffering. Do most young people today have enough courage to do that much? We must educate all of young people in our freedoms and history in addition to the ability to read, do math, write and express themselves in public and learn an occupation. They need to know how things work (physical science) and how the world and civilization (or lack of it) works. And we must prepare to defend our freedom. The threats mentioned above are real. We must learn from history, be informed, observant and prepared.


Cultures that have a code of conduct advance better especially if they are prepared.

Putting head in sand or ignoring reality is asking for trouble.

Sitting ducks are easy targets. We are sitting ducks.

Even though there are good things happening, attention urgently needs to be given to the following matters which may destroy our America and our freedoms and way of life. The conquering of countries is a fact of history and we are greatly outnumbered in the world by peoples who would like a piece of our country.

It appears that the government is allowing foreigners to buy our banks real estate and many companies thereby getting control of them and siphoning off profits to their foreign countries. President Bush wanted to give foreigners control of more of our ports.

There are in excess of sixty million aliens living here with millions more arriving yearly. Ten million more just in the last few years. A few of them believe that it is OK to kill innocent women and children. Most aliens have little if any loyalty to the US and have not renounced citizenship in their mother country. Our military has largely been disbanded and is stretched so thin by never ending warfare in several countries that experts question its ability to do its main job which is to protect us..


Our precious technology is being sold by companies for selfish profit.

Our military is about to be upstaged and made nearly powerless by brilliant Chinese who are now using our technology that took us years to develop.

The Chinese have the largest standing army in the world, a growing navy and now have secret weapons that can knock out our military to a large extent.

Most of our population and our youth are unprepared and unable to defend themselves.

They have more bright young people than we have young people.

Their bright young people are given the opportunity for advanced technical education while many of ours are given a sub level education and can't even find a job to help pay for college.

Education in the USA is being ignored as has been a large class of Americans who used to be middle class but are now part of the largest growing class in America "The Forgotten Class" of those living from paycheck to paycheck just barely above poverty. The government has allowed the profiteers to exploit them. It has allowed CEOs and the rich to get away with robbery of the workers. Example: KMart.

We need to build that human spirit and community spirit today. We need a code of conduct for humans. We need decent values. We need to create and foster communities where people, the government, the police, schools and business work together for the benefit of everyone in the community. The culture needs to be converted to a culture of caring.

Can you even buy an electronic item in any store that was engineered and manufactured in the USA? Other countries children are outscoring ours in science and math and they are producing hundreds more engineers and advanced technologists then we are. The result will be that they will surpass us in engineering and technology and defense technology in just a few years. This is very dangerous for our defense and for us..

Billions of people want to live here. Who is going to stop them?

We are becoming sitting ducks not unlike the decadent Romans, with our defenses so weak as to be ineffective.

It is time the USA with less than 4% the world population started paying attention to what is happening in the world before it is too late.

We must prepare to defend our freedom.

The threats mentioned above are real.

A society with only a few defenders is a sitting duck.

Our society needs to get its head out of the sand of fantasy and deal with reality.

We must learn from history, be informed, observant and prepared. We need to do this now.